## Simplified method for filling and discharge

1 For silos, where dc is less than 5m a simplified method for considering filling and discharge processes may be applied. In this procedure, the patch loads according to 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 may be adjusted by increasing the horizontal pressures. 2 For concrete silos, silos with stiffeners and silos with non circular cross-sections shapes the increased horizontal pressures for filling Phf,s and discharge Phe,s are Phf is calculated from expression 5.3 Phe is calculated from expression 5.21 b is...

## Coefficient of wall friction pm for the determination of pressures

A sample of the particulate material is sheared along a surface representing the silo wall a sample with corrugation in the case of corrugated steel silos and the friction force at the sheared surface is measured. The test apparatus is shown in Figure B1. The diameter of the box shall be at least 40 times the maximum particle size and the compacted height H of the sample shall be between 0,15D and 0,20D. In the case of wall samples with irregularities such as corrugations the box size shall be...

## Flat bottoms

1 Vertical loads acting on fiat or shallow silo bottoms inclinations a lt 20 shall be calculated as follows pvt Cb pv 5.13 pv is calculated using expression 5.4 Cb is a bottom load magnifier to account for the uneven load distribution calculated using expression 5.14 Figure 5.2 Side elevation and plan view of the patch load Figure 5.2 Side elevation and plan view of the patch load 1 P When a gt 20 see Figure 5.3 the pressure normal to the inclined hopper wall pn is calculated as follows x is a...