Or to your national standards organization National Application Documents NADs

13) In view of the responsibilities of authorities in member countries for safety, health and other matters covered by the essential requirements of the Construction Products Directive (CPD), certain safety elements in this ENV have been assigned indicative values which are identified by (boxed values). The authorities in each member country are expected to review the boxed values and may substitute alternative definitive values for these safety elements for use in national application. 14)...

Simplified method for filling and discharge

Bulk Material Density Method

1 For silos, where dc is less than 5m a simplified method for considering filling and discharge processes may be applied. In this procedure, the patch loads according to 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 may be adjusted by increasing the horizontal pressures. 2 For concrete silos, silos with stiffeners and silos with non circular cross-sections shapes the increased horizontal pressures for filling Phf,s and discharge Phe,s are Phf is calculated from expression 5.3 Phe is calculated from expression 5.21 b is...

Coefficient of wall friction pm for the determination of pressures

Coefficient Friction Test Method

A sample of the particulate material is sheared along a surface representing the silo wall a sample with corrugation in the case of corrugated steel silos and the friction force at the sheared surface is measured. The test apparatus is shown in Figure B1. The diameter of the box shall be at least 40 times the maximum particle size and the compacted height H of the sample shall be between 0,15D and 0,20D. In the case of wall samples with irregularities such as corrugations the box size shall be...

Normative references

This European Prestandard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other standards. These normative references are cited in the appropriate places in the text and publications listed hereafter. ISO 3898 1987, Basis of design for structures Notations. General symbols. NOTE The following European Prestandards which are published or in preparation are cited at the appropriate places in the text and publications listed hereafter. ENV 1991-1, Eurocode 1 Basis of design and actions...

Flat bottoms

Concrete Silo Design

1 Vertical loads acting on fiat or shallow silo bottoms inclinations a lt 20 shall be calculated as follows pvt Cb pv 5.13 pv is calculated using expression 5.4 Cb is a bottom load magnifier to account for the uneven load distribution calculated using expression 5.14 Figure 5.2 Side elevation and plan view of the patch load Figure 5.2 Side elevation and plan view of the patch load 1 P When a gt 20 see Figure 5.3 the pressure normal to the inclined hopper wall pn is calculated as follows x is a...