## Simplified method for filling and discharge

1 For silos, where dc is less than 5m a simplified method for considering filling and discharge processes may be applied. In this procedure, the patch loads according to 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 may be adjusted by increasing the horizontal pressures. 2 For concrete silos, silos with stiffeners and silos with non circular cross-sections shapes the increased horizontal pressures for filling Phf,s and discharge Phe,s are Phf is calculated from expression 5.3 Phe is calculated from expression 5.21 b is...

## Flat bottoms

1 Vertical loads acting on fiat or shallow silo bottoms inclinations a lt 20 shall be calculated as follows pvt Cb pv 5.13 pv is calculated using expression 5.4 Cb is a bottom load magnifier to account for the uneven load distribution calculated using expression 5.14 Figure 5.2 Side elevation and plan view of the patch load Figure 5.2 Side elevation and plan view of the patch load 1 P When a gt 20 see Figure 5.3 the pressure normal to the inclined hopper wall pn is calculated as follows x is a...