General

1) In principle the general format given in ENV 1991-1 for design procedures is applicable. However silos and tanks are different to many other structures because they may be subjected to the full design loads from particulate materials or liquids for most of their life.

2) This annex provides supplementary guidance applicable to silos or tanks regarding partial factors on actions (g factors) and on combinations on silos and tanks with other actions; and the relevant Y factors.

3) Thermal actions include climatic effects and the effects of hot materials. Design situations that shall be considered include:

— Hot material filled into a partly filled silo or tank. The effects of heated air above the stored material shall be considered;

— Resistance to silo wall contraction from the stored material during cooling.

4) Determination of the effect of differential settlements of batteries of silo or tank cells should be based on the worst combination of full and empty cells.

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