Coefficient of wall friction

1) Two values should be measured. One shall be used for the determination of flow patterns and the other for the calculation of wall loads.

2) Tests to determine for the evaluation of flow patterns should be carried out at a low stress level corresponding to the stress level found during flow in the lower part of the hopper.

3) Tests to determine for the calculation of loads should be carried out at a stress level corresponding to the maximum horizontal pressure phf in the vertical part of the silo. phf may be assessed by using expression (5.3)

4) Test methods for the measurement of the two values of are described in Annex B.

5) The conversion factors shall not be less than 1,15 for the upper bound value or greater than 0,9 for the lower bound value.

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