Flat bottom and hopper

1) For funnel flow silos, the discharge loads on bottoms and hoppers may be calculated using the guidance for filling loads ( and

2) For mass flow silos, an additional fixed normal pressure, the kick load Ps (see Figure 5.3) is applied, over an inclined distance of 0,2dc along the hopper wall and around the perimeter.


Ph0 is the horizontal filling pressure at the transition.

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