## Flat bottoms

1) Vertical loads acting on fiat or shallow silo bottoms (inclinations a < 20°) shall be calculated as follows: pvt = Cb pv (5.13)

where:

pv is calculated using expression (5.4)

Cb is a bottom load magnifier to account for the uneven load distribution calculated using expression (5.14)

' of thin waited circular silo

Figure 5.2 — Side elevation and plan view of the patch load

' of thin waited circular silo

Figure 5.2 — Side elevation and plan view of the patch load

5.2.1.3 Hoppers

1)P When a > 20° (see Figure 5.3) the pressure normal to the inclined hopper wall pn is calculated as follows:

where:

x is a length between 0 and lh (see Figure 5.3) pn1 and pn2 are pressure due to hopper filling pn3 is the pressure due to the vertical pressure in the stored material directly above transition. Cb is the bottom load magnifier taken from expression (5.14)

pv0 is the vertical pressure acting at the transition calculated using expression (5.4)

2)P The value of the wall frictional pressure pt is given by:

where:

pn is calculated from expression (5.15)

3) For silo design the vertical component of the tensile force at the top of the hopper may be required (for example, for the design of silo supports or a ring beam at the transition level). The vertical component shall be determined from force equilibrium incorporating a vertical surcharge Cbpvo calculated at the transition level and the weight of the hopper contents (Figure 5.3).

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