Maximum load magnifier

1) P The load magnifier C accounts for a number of phenomena occurring during discharge of the silo. The magnitude of the load magnifier increases with increasing material strength.

2) An appropriate laboratory test method for the parameter C has not yet been developed. The load magnifiers are based on experience and apply to silos with conventional filling and discharge systems and built to standard engineering tolerances.

3) For materials not listed in Table 7.1, the maximum wall load magnifier may be obtained using: For : < 30° C = 1,35, and

where:

: is measured in degrees.

4) A test method to determine j is given in Annex B.

5) Appropriate load magnifiers for specific silos with specified stored materials can be estimated based on full scale tests performed with such silos.

Table 7.1 — Particulate material properties

Particulate material

Density3

g[kN/m3]

pressure ratio

(Ks,m)

Coefficient of wall friction,

Maximum load magnifier

C0

Steel4

Concrete

barley1

8,5

0,55

0,35

0,45

1,35

cement

16,0

0,50

0,40

0,50

1,40

cement clinker

18,0

0,45

0,45

0,55

1,40

dry sand2

16,0

0,45

0,40

0,50

1,40

flour1

7,0

0,40

0,30

0,40

1,45

fly ash2

14,0

0,45

0,45

0,55

1,45

maize1

8,5

0,50

0,30

0,40

1,40

sugar1

9,5

0,50

0,45

0,55

1,40

wheat1

9,0

0,55

0,30

0,40

1,30

coal12

10,0

0,50

0,45

0,55

1,45

NOTE 1 Dust explosions may occur with this material.

NOTE 2 Care should be taken because of the possible range of material properties.

NOTE 3 Densities are given for the calculation of loads and should not be used for volume calculations. Densities given in Section 2 "Densities of building materials and stored materials" of ENV 1991-2-1 may be used for volume calculations. NOTE 4 Not applicable to corrugated walls.

NOTE 1 Dust explosions may occur with this material.

NOTE 2 Care should be taken because of the possible range of material properties.

NOTE 3 Densities are given for the calculation of loads and should not be used for volume calculations. Densities given in Section 2 "Densities of building materials and stored materials" of ENV 1991-2-1 may be used for volume calculations. NOTE 4 Not applicable to corrugated walls.

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