(1) In general, predeformations are applied to a particular structure in order to generate action effects for improving its behaviour, so that the particular structural safety and serviceability requirements are met.

Note : Predeformations may have no effect on the ultimate resistance if sufficient rotation capacity is available, and subsequent plastic moment redistributions are possible.

(2)P The application of predeformations during execution shall be performed in a controlled way, e.g. stepwise as assumed in the design calculations or required in the project specification.

(3)P Control of predeformations shall be performed by checking both the deformations and the forces.

Note : The force may be checked either by direct force measurements or indirect stiffness measurements or vibration measurements.

(4) Partial factors for the effects of predeformations should be taken from the relevant parts of ENV 1992 to 1999, depending on the type of structural analysis and the limit state under consideration.

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