Eurocode 5.4.8.2

Page

Foreword 2

1 Introduction 11

1.1 Scope 11

1.1.1 Scope of Eurocode 2 11

1.1.2 Scope of Part 1 of Eurocode 2 11

1.1.3 Further parts of Eurocode 2 12

1.2 Distinction between principles and application rules 12

1.3 Assumptions 12

1.4 Definitions 13

1.4.1 Terms common to all Eurocodes 13

1.4.2 Special terms used in Part 1

of Eurocode 2 13

1.6 Symbols common to all Eurocodes 15

1.6.1 Latin upper case letters 15

1.6.2 Latin lower case letters 15

1.6.3 Greek lower case letters 16

1.6.4 Subscripts 16

1.7 Special symbols used in this

Part 1 of Eurocode 2 17

1.7.1 General 17

1.7.2 Latin upper case symbols 18

1.7.3 Latin lower case symbols 18

1.7.4 Greek symbols 19

2 Basis of design 20

2.1 Fundamental requirements 21

2.2 Definitions and classifications 21

2.2.1 Limit states and design situations 21

2.2.1.1 Limit states 21

2.2.1.2 Design situations 22

2.2.2 Actions 22

2.2.2.1 Definitions and principal classifications 22

2.2.2.2 Characteristic values of actions 22

2.2.2.3 Representative values of variable actions 23

2.2.2.4 Design values of actions 23

2.2.2.5 Design values of the effects of actions 24

2.2.3 Material properties 24

2.2.3.1 Characteristic values 24

2.2.3.2 Design values 24

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2.2.4 Geometrical data 24

2.2.5 Load arrangements and load cases 25

2.3 Design requirements 25

2.3.1 General 25

2.3.2 Ultimate limit states 25

2.3.2.1 Verification conditions 25

2.3.2.2 Combination of actions 25

2.3.2.3 Design values of permanent actions 26

2.3.3 Partial safety factors for ultimate limit states 27

2.3.3.1 Partial safety factors for actions on building structures 27

2.3.3.2 Partial safety factors for materials 28

2.3.4 Serviceability limit states 28

2.4 Durability 29

2.5 Analysis 29

2.5.1 General provisions 29

2.5.1.0 Notation 29

2.5.1.1 General 29

2.5.1.2 Load cases and combinations 30

2.5.1.3 Imperfections 30

2.5.1.4 Second order effects 32

2.5.1.5 Time dependent effects 32

2.5.1.6 Design by testing 32

2.5.2 Idealisation of the structure 32

2.5.2.0 Notation 32

2.5.2.1 Structural models for overall analysis 32

2.5.2.2 Geometrical data 33

2.5.3 Calculation methods 36

2.5.3.0 Notation 36

2.5.3.1 Basic considerations 36

2.5.3.2 Types of structural analysis 36

2.5.3.3 Simplifications 37

2.5.3.4 Structural analysis of beams and frames 37

2.5.3.5 Analysis of slabs 38

2.5.3.6 Structural analysis of walls and plates loaded in their own plane 39

2.5.3.7 Corbels, deep beams and anchorage zones for post-tensioning forces 40

2.5.4 Determination of the effects of prestressing 41

2.5.4.0 Notation 41

Page

2.5.4.1 General 42

2.5.4.2 Determination of prestressing force 42

2.5.4.3 Effects of prestressing under service conditions 43

2.5.4.4 Effects of prestressing at the ultimate limit states 43

2.5.5 Determination of the effects of time dependent deformation of concrete 44

2.5.5.0 Notation 44

2.5.5.1 General 44 3 Material properties 45

3.1 Concrete 45

3.1.0 Notation 45

3.1.1 General 46

3.1.2 Normal weight concrete 46

3.1.2.1 Definitions 46

3.1.2.2 Compressive strength of concrete 46

3.1.2.3 Tensile strength 46

3.1.2.4 Strength classes of concrete 47

3.1.2.5 Deformation properties 47

3.2 Reinforcing steel 50

3.2.0 Notation 50

3.2.1 General 50

3.2.2 Classification and geometry 50

3.2.3 Physical properties 51

3.2.4 Mechanical properties 51

3.2.4.1 Strength 51

3.2.4.2 Ductility characteristics 51

3.2.4.3 Modulus of elasticity 51

3.2.4.4 Fatigue 51

3.2.5 Technological properties 52

3.2.5.1 Bond and anchorage 52

3.2.5.2 Weldability 52

3.3 Prestressing steel 53

3.3.0 Notation 53

3.3.1 General 53

3.3.2 Classification and geometry 53

3.3.3 Physical properties 54

3.3.4 Mechanical properties 54

3.3.4.1 Strength 54

3.3.4.2 Stress-strain diagram 54

3.3.4.3 Ductility characteristics 54

3.3.4.4 Modulus of elasticity 55

3.3.4.5 Fatigue 55

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3.3.4.6 Multi-axial stresses 55

3.3.5 Technological properties 55

3.3.5.1 Surface condition 55

3.3.5.2 Relaxation 55

3.3.5.3 Susceptibility to stress-corrosion 55 3.4 Prestressing devices 55

3.4.1 Anchorages and couplers 55

3.4.1.1 General 55

3.4.1.2 Mechanical properties 56

3.4.2 Ducts and sheaths 56 3.4.2.1 General 56 4 Section and member design 56

4.1 Durability requirements 57

4.1.0 Notation 57

4.1.1 General 57

4.1.2 Actions 57

4.1.2.1 General 57

4.1.2.2 Environmental conditions 57

4.1.2.3 Chemical attack 57

4.1.2.4 Physical attack 58

4.1.2.5 Consequential indirect effects 58

4.1.3 Design 58

4.1.3.1 General 58

4.1.3.2 Design criteria 59

4.1.3.3 Concrete cover 59

4.1.4 Materials 61

4.1.5 Construction 61

4.2 Design data 61

4.2.1 Concrete 61

4.2.1.0 Notation 61

4.2.1.1 General 62

4.2.1.2 Physical properties 62

4.2.1.3 Mechanical properties 62

4.2.1.4 Time-dependent behaviour 65

4.2.2 Reinforced concrete 66

4.2.2.0 Notation 66

4.2.2.1 Reinforcing steel: general 66

4.2.2.2 Physical properties of reinforcing steel 66

4.2.2.3 Mechanical properties of reinforcing steel 66

4.2.2.4 Technological properties of reinforcing steel 67

4.2.3 Prestressed concrete 67 4.2.3.0 Notation 67

Page

4.2.3.1 Prestressing steel: general 68

4.2.3.2 Physical properties of prestressing steel 68

4.2.3.3 Mechanical properties of prestressing steel 68

4.2.3.4 Technological properties of prestressing steel 70

4.2.3.5 Design of members in prestressed concrete 71

4.3 Ultimate limit states 78

4.3.1 Ultimate limit states for bending and longitudinal force 78

4.3.1.0 Notation 78

4.3.1.1 General 78

4.3.1.2 Design resistance moments of beams subject to bending and longitudinal force 78

4.3.1.3 Brittle failure and hyperstrength 79

4.3.2 Shear 80

4.3.2.0 Notation 80

4.3.2.1 General 81

4.3.2.2 Design method for shear 81

4.3.2.3 Elements not requiring design shear reinforcement 83

4.3.2.4 Elements requiring design shear reinforcement 84

4.3.2.5 Shear between web and flanges 87

4.3.3 Torsion 88

4.3.3.0 Notation 88

4.3.3.1 Pure torsion 88

4.3.3.2 Combined effects of actions 91

4.3.3.3 Warping torsion 91

4.3.4 Punching 92

4.3.4.0 Notation 92

4.3.4.1 General 92

4.3.4.2 Scope and definitions 93

4.3.4.3 Design method for checking punching shear 95

4.3.4.4 Slabs with variable depth 97

4.3.4.5 Shear resistance 98

4.3.5 Ultimate limit states induced by structural deformation (buckling) 101

4.3.5.0 Notation 101

4.3.5.1 Scope and definitions 101

4.3.5.2 Design procedures 102

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4.3.5.3 Classification of structures and structural elements 102

4.3.5.4 Imperfections 105

4.3.5.5 Specific data for different types of structure 105

4.3.5.6 Simplified design methods for isolated columns 107

4.3.5.7 Lateral buckling of slender beams 111 4.4 Serviceability limit states 112

4.4.0 General 112 4.4.0.1 Notation 112 4.4.0.2 Scope 113

4.4.1 Limitation of stresses under serviceability conditions 113

4.4.1.1 Basic considerations 113

4.4.1.2 Methods for checking stresses 113

4.4.2 Limit states of cracking 114

4.4.2.1 General considerations 114

4.4.2.2 Minimum reinforcement areas 115

4.4.2.3 Control of cracking without direct calculation 116

4.4.2.4 Calculation of crack widths 118

4.4.3 Limit states of deformation 121

4.4.3.1 Basic considerations 121

4.4.3.2 Cases where calculations may be omitted 122

4.4.3.3 Checking deflections by calculation 123 5 Detailing provisions 123

5.0 Notation 123

5.1 General 124

5.2 Steel for reinforced concrete 124

5.2.1 General detailing arrangements 124

5.2.1.1 Spacing of bars 124

5.2.1.2 Permissible curvatures 125

5.2.2 Bond 125

5.2.2.1 Bond conditions 125

5.2.2.2 Ultimate bond stress 126

5.2.2.3 Basic anchorage length 127

5.2.3 Anchorage 127

5.2.3.1 General 127

5.2.3.2 Anchorage methods 127

5.2.3.3 Transverse reinforcement parallel to the concrete surface 128

5.2.3.4 Required anchorage length 128

5.2.3.5 Anchorage by mechanical devices 129

Page

5.2.4 Splices 129

5.2.4.1 Lap splices for bars or wires 129

5.2.4.2 Laps for welded mesh fabrics made of high bond wires 131

5.2.5 Anchorage of links and shear reinforcement 132

5.2.6 Additional rules for high bond bars exceeding | 32 mm |

in diameter 132

5.2.6.1 Construction details 132

5.2.6.3 Anchorages and joints 133

5.2.7 Bundled high bond bars 134

5.2.7.1 General 134

5.2.7.2 Anchorage and joints 134

5.3 Prestressing units 134

5.3.1 Arrangement of the prestressing units 134

5.3.2 Concrete cover 134

5.3.3 Horizontal and vertical spacing 134

5.3.3.1 Pre-tensioning 134

5.3.3.2 Post-tensioning 135

5.3.4 Anchorages and couplers for prestressing tendons 135

5.4 Structural members 135

5.4.1 Columns 135

5.4.1.1 Minimum dimensions 135

5.4.1.2 Longitudinal and transverse reinforcement 136

5.4.2 Beams 136

5.4.2.1 Longitudinal reinforcement 136

5.4.2.2 Shear reinforcement 139

5.4.2 3 Torsional reinforcement 136

5.4.2.4 Surface reinforcement 141

5.4.3 Cast in situ solid slabs 142

5.4.3.1 Minimum thickness 142

5.4.3.2 Flexural reinforcement 142

5.4.3.3 Shear reinforcement 143

5.4.4 Corbels 144

5.4.5 Deep beams 145

5.4.6 Anchorage zones for post-tensioning forces 145

5.4.7 Reinforced concrete walls 146

5.4.7.1 General 146

5.4.7.2 Vertical reinforcement 146

5.4.7.3 Horizontal reinforcement 146

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5.4.7.4 Transverse reinforcement 146

5.4.8 Particular cases 146

5.4.8.1 Concentrated forces 146

5.4.8.2 Forces associated with change in direction 147

5.4.8.3 Indirect supports 147 5.5 Limitation of damage due to accidental actions 147

5.5.1 Tying system 147

5.5.2 Proportioning of ties 148

5.5.3 continuity and anchorage 148 6 Construction and workmanship 148

6.1 Objectives 148

6.2 Tolerances 148

6.2.1 Tolerances — General 148

6.2.2 Tolerances with regard to structural safety 148

6.2.3 Tolerances for concrete cover 149

6.2.4 Tolerances for construction purposes 149

6.3 Construction rules 149

6.3.1 Concrete 149

6.3.2 Formwork and falsework 149

6.3.2.1 Basic requirements 149

6.3.2.2 Surface finish 150

6.3.2.3 Temporary works inserts 150

6.3.2.4 Removal of formwork and falsework 150

6.3.3 Reinforcing steel 150

6.3.3.1 Basic requirements 150

6.3.3.2 Transport, storage and fabrication of the reinforcement 150

6.3.3.3 Welding 151

6.3.3.4 Joints 151

6.3.3.5 Fabrication, assembly and placing of the reinforcement 151

6.3.4 Prestressing steel 151

6.3.4.1 Basic requirements 151

6.3.4.2 Transport and storage of the tendons 152

6.3.4.3 Fabrication of tendons 152

6.3.4.4 Placing of the tendons 152

6.3.4.5 Tensioning of the tendons 152

6.3.4.6 Grouting and other protective measures 153

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