characteristic values of permanent actions


characteristic value of one of the variable actions


characteristic value of the other variable actions


design value (specified value) of the accidental action


partial safety factors for permanent action j


as Yg,j, but for accidental design situations


partial safety factors for variable action i

?0, ?1, ?2

coefficients defined in

Imposed deformations should be considered where relevant.

P(3) Combinations for accidental design situations either involve an explicit accidental action A

(e.g. shock) or refer to a situation after an accidental event (A = 0). Unless specified otherwise, Yga = hI

may be used.

P(4) In the expressions [2.7(a)] and [2.7(b)] prestressing shall be introduced where relevant.

(6) Simplified equations for building structures are given in

(7) For seismic design, see Eurocode 8.

(8) For fire design, see Eurocode 2-10. Design values of permanent actions

P(1) In the various combinations defined above, those permanent actions that increase the effect of the variable actions (i.e. produce unfavourable effects) shall be represented by their upper design values, those that decrease the effect of the variable actions (i.e. produce favourable effects) by their lower design values [see].

8) Fuller definitions of the classifications of actions will be found in the Eurocode 1, Bases of Design and Actions on Structures.

P(2) Except for the case in P(3) below, either the lower or the upper design value (whichever gives the more unfavourable effect) shall be applied throughout the structure.

P(3) Where the results of a verification may be very sensitive to variations of the magnitude of a permanent action from place to place in the structure, the unfavourable and the favourable parts of this action shall be considered as individual actions. This applies in particular to the verification of static equilibrium. In the afore-mentioned cases specific Yg values need to be considered [see for building structures].

(4) For continuous beams without cantilevers the same design value of the self-weight [evaluated as in] may be applied to all spans.

2.3.3 Partial safety factors for ultimate limit states Partial safety factors for actions on building structures

(1) Partial safety factors for the persistent and transient design situations are given in Table 2.2.

(2) For accidental design situations to which expression [2.7(b)] applies, the partial safety factors for variable actions and prestressing are equal to | unity |.

Table 2.2 — Partial safety factors for actions in building structures for persistent and transient design situations

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