Limit states

The following ultimate limit states (ULS) should be satisfied for geotechnical design; they each have their own combinations of actions. (For an explanation of Eurocode terminology please refer to Chapter 1, originally published as Introduction to Eurocodes5.) EQU Loss of equilibrium of the structure.

STR Internal failure or excessive deformation of the structure or structural member.

GEO Failure due to excessive deformation of the ground. Loss of equilibrium due to uplift by water pressure.

HYD Failure caused by hydraulic gradients.

In addition, the serviceability limit states (SLS) should be satisfied. It will usually be clear that one of the limit states will govern the design and therefore it will not be necessary to carry out checks for all of them, although it is considered good practice to record that they have all been considered.

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