Load arrangements of actions introduction

<BS EN 1990 4.1.2> <BS EN 1990 4.1.2 (3)>

The process of designing concrete structures involves identifying relevant design situations and limit states. These include persistent, transient or accidental < BS EN 1990 3-2 >

situations. In each design situation the structure should be verified at the relevant limit states.

In the analysis of the structure at the limit state being considered, the maximum effect of actions should be obtained using a realistic arrangement of loads. Generally variable actions should be arranged to produce the most unfavourable effect, for example to produce maximum overturning moments or maximum bending moments in spans and supports respectively.

For building structures, design concentrates mainly on the ULS, the ultimate limit state of strength (STR), and SLS, the serviceability limit state. However, it <BS EN 1990 3.3, 3.4, is essential that all limit states are considered. The limit states of equilibrium 6.5>. (EQU), strength at ULS with geotechnical actions (STR/GEO) and accidental <BS EN 1990 6.4>.

situations must be taken into account as appropriate.

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