Permanent actions

The densities and weights of commonly used materials, sheet materials and forms of construction are given in Table 2.5.

Table 2.5 Typical permanent actions [24]

Table 2.5 a) Bulk densities for soils and materials

Bulk densities

kN/m3

Bulk densities

kN/m

Soils

Concrete - plain

24.0

Clay - stiff

19 -22

Concrete - reinforced

25.0

Clay - soft

16 - 19

Concrete - wet reinforced

26.0

Granular - loose

16 - 18

Glass

25.6

Granular - dense

19 - 21

Granite

27.3

Silty clay, sandy clay

16 - 20

Hardcore

19.0

Materials

Limestone (Portland stone - med. weight)

22.0

Asphalt

22.5

Limestone (Marble - heavyweight)

26.7

Blocks - aerated concrete (min.)

5.0

Macadam paving

21.0

Blocks - aerated concrete (max.)

9.0

MDF

8.0

Blocks - dense aggregate

20.0

Plaster

14.1

Blocks - lightweight

14.0

Plywood

6.3

Books - bulk storage

8 - 11

Sandstone

23.5

Brickwork - blue

24.0

Screed - sand/cement

22.0

Brickwork - engineering

22.0

Steel/iron

77.0

Brickwork - fletton

18.0

Terracotta

20.7

Brickwork - London stock

19.0

Timber - Douglas fir

5.2

Brickwork - sand lime

21.0

Timber - European beech/oak

7.1

Chipboard

6.9

Timber - Grade C16

3.6

Concrete - aerated

10.0

Timber - Grade C24

4.1

Concrete - lightweight

18.0

Timber - Iroko teak

6.4

Table 2.5 b) Typical area loads for concrete slabs and sheet materials

Typical area loads

kN/m3

Typical area loads

kN/m

Concrete slabs

Plasterboard (12.5 mm)

0.09

P. C. solid units (100 mm)

2.50

Plasterboard (19 mm)

0.15

P. C. hollowcore unitsa (150 mm)

2.40

Plywood (12.5 mm)

0.08

P. C. hollowcore unitsa (200 mm)

2.87

Plywood (19 mm)

0.12

P. C. hollowcore unitsa (300 mm)

4.07

Quarry tiles including mortar bedding

0.32

P. C. hollowcore unitsa (400 mm)

4.84

Raised floor - heavy duty

0.50

Ribbed slabb (250 mm)

4.00

Raised floor - medium weight

0.40

Ribbed slabb (300 mm)

4.30

Raised floor - lightweight

0.30

Ribbed slabb (350 mm)

4.70

Render (13 mm)

0.30

Waffle slabc - standard moulds (325 mm)

6.00

Screed - 50 mm

1.15

Waffle slabc - standard moulds (425 mm)

7.30

Screed - lightweight (25 mm)

0.45

Waffle slabc - standard moulds (525 mm)

8.60

Stainless steel roofing (0.4 mm)

0.05

Sheet materials

Suspended ceiling - steel

0.10

Asphalt (20 mm)

0.46

Suspended fibreboard tiles

0.05

Carpet and underlay

0.05

T&G boards (15.5 mm)

0.09

Chipboard (18 mm)

0.12

T&G boards (22 mm)

0.12

Dry lining on stud (20 mm)

0.15

Tiles - ceramic floor on bed

1.00

False ceiling - steel framing

0.10

Battens for slating and tiling

0.03

Felt (3 layer) and chippings

0.35

Tiles - clay roof (max)

0.67

Glass - double glazing

0.52

Tiles - natural slate (thick)

0.65

Glass - single glazing

0.30

Tiles - interlocking concrete

0.55

Insulation - glass fibre (150 mm)

0.03

Tiles - plain concrete

0.75

Linoleum (3.2 mm)

0.05

Key

Paving stones (50 mm)

1.20

a Hollowcore figures assume no topping b Ribbed slabs: 150 web @ 750 centres with 100 mm thick flange/slab. Web slope 1:10

Plaster - two coat gypsum (12 mm)

0.21

Plaster skim coat

0.05

c Waffle slabs: 150 ribs @ 900 centres with 100 mm thick flange/slab. Web slope 1:10

Loads for typical forms of

kN/m2

x

Loads for typical forms of

kN/m2

construction

construction

Cavity wall

Residential floor

102.5 mm brickwork

2.40

Carpet

0.05

50 mm insulation

0.02

Floating floor

0.15

100 mm blockwork

1.40

Self-weight of 250 mm solid slab

6.25

Plaster

0.21

Suspended ceiling

0.20

Total

4.0

Services

0.10

Lightweight cladding

Total

6.75

Insulated panel

0.20

School floor

Purlins

0.05

Carpet/flooring

0.05

Dry lining on stud

0.15

Self-weight of 250 mm solid slab

6.25

Total

0.40

Suspended ceiling

0.15

Curtain walling

Services

0.20

Allow

1.00

Total

6.60

Precast concrete cladding

Hospital floor

Facing

1.00

Flooring

0.05

Precast panel (100 mm)

2.40

Self-weight of 250 mm solid slab

6.25

Insulation

0.05

Screed

2.20

Dry lining on stud

0.15

Suspended ceiling

0.15

Total

3.60

Services (but can be greater)

0.05

Dry lining

Total

9.15

Metal studs

0.05

Plasterboard and skim x 2

0.40

Flat roof/ external terrace

Total

0.45

Paving or gravel (allow)

2.20

Timber stud wall

Waterproofing

0.50

Timber studs

0.10

Insulation

0.10

Plasterboard and skim x 2

0.40

Self-weight of 250 mm solid slab ceiling

6.25

Total

0.50

Suspended ceiling

0.15

Office floor

Services

0.30

Carpet

0.03

Total

9.50

Raised floor

0.30

Self weight of 250 mm solid slab

6.25

Timber pitched roof

Suspended ceiling

0.15

Tiles (range 0.50-0.75)

0.75

Services

0.30

Battens

0.05

Total

7.03

Felt

0.05

Office core area

Rafters

0.15

Tiles and bedding (allow)

1.00

Insulation

0.05

Screed

2.20

Plasterboard & skim

0.15

Self-weight of 250 mm solid slab

6.25

Services

0.10

Suspended ceiling

0.15

Ceiling joists

0.15

Services

0.30

Total perpendicular to roof

1.45

Total

9.90

Total on plan assuming 30° pitch

1.60

Stairs

150 mm waist (e 175 @ 25 kN/m3)

4.40

Metal decking roof

Treads 0.15 x 0.25 x 4/2 @ 25 kN/m3

1.88

Insulated panel

0.20

Screed 0.05 @ 22 kN/m3

1.10

Purlins

0.10

Plaster

0.21

Steelwork

0.30

Finish: tiles & bedding

1.00

Services

0.10

Total

8.60

Total

0.70

Greener Homes for You

Greener Homes for You

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Living Green. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Great Tips on Buying, Designing and Building an Eco-friendly Home.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • pia
    Where to find permanent actions in eurocode purlins services?
    11 months ago

Post a comment