Selected symbols

Symbol Definition

Value

Symbol Definition

Value

¿c

Cross sectional area of concrete

bh

¿s

Area of tension steel

¿s2

Area of compression steel

¿s, prov

Area of tension steel provided

¿s, req'd

Area of tension steel required

beff

Effective flange width

bt

Mean width of the tension zone

bmin

Width of beam or rib

bw

Width of rib web

d

Effective depth

dz

Effective depth to compression reinforcement

/cd

Design value of concrete compressive strength

acc /ck/gc

/ck

Characteristic cylinder strength of concrete

/ctm

Mean value of axial tensile strength

0.30 fck2/3 for fck < C50/60 (from Table 3.1, Eurocode 2)

hf

Flange thickness

hs

Slab thickness

K

Factor to take account of the different structural systems

See Table NA.4 in UK National Annex

leff

Effective span of member

See Section 5.3.2.2 (1)

lo

Distance between points of zero moment

l/d

Limiting span-to-depth ratio

X ly

Spans of a two-way slab

M

Design moment at the ULS

x

Depth to neutral axis

(d - z)/0.4

xmax

Limiting value for depth to neutral axis

(d - 0.4)d where d <1.0

z

Lever arm

a cc

Coefficient taking account of long term effects on compressive strength and of unfavourable effects resulting from the way load is applied

0.85 for flexure and axial loads.

1.0 for other phenomena (From UK National Annex)

d

Ratio of the redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment

7 m

Partial factor for material properties

1.15 for reinforcement (gs) 1.5 for concrete (gc)

r 0

Reference reinforcement ratio

R fck/1000

r

Required tension reinforcement at mid-span to resist the moment due to the design loads (or at support for cantilevers)

As/bd

p

Required compression reinforcement at mid-span to resist the moment due to the design loads (or at support for cantilevers)

As2/bd

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