## Selected symbols

Symbol Definition

Value

Symbol Definition

Value

¿c |
Cross sectional area of concrete |
bh |

¿s |
Area of tension steel | |

¿s2 |
Area of compression steel | |

¿s, prov |
Area of tension steel provided | |

¿s, req'd |
Area of tension steel required | |

beff |
Effective flange width | |

bt |
Mean width of the tension zone | |

bmin |
Width of beam or rib | |

bw |
Width of rib web | |

d |
Effective depth | |

dz |
Effective depth to compression reinforcement | |

/cd |
Design value of concrete compressive strength |
acc /ck/gc |

/ck |
Characteristic cylinder strength of concrete | |

/ctm |
Mean value of axial tensile strength |
0.30 fck2/3 for fck < C50/60 (from Table 3.1, Eurocode 2) |

hf |
Flange thickness | |

hs |
Slab thickness | |

K |
Factor to take account of the different structural systems |
See Table NA.4 in UK National Annex |

leff |
Effective span of member |
See Section 5.3.2.2 (1) |

lo |
Distance between points of zero moment | |

l/d |
Limiting span-to-depth ratio | |

X ly |
Spans of a two-way slab | |

M |
Design moment at the ULS | |

x |
Depth to neutral axis |
(d - z)/0.4 |

xmax |
Limiting value for depth to neutral axis |
(d - 0.4)d where d <1.0 |

z |
Lever arm | |

a cc |
Coefficient taking account of long term effects on compressive strength and of unfavourable effects resulting from the way load is applied |
0.85 for flexure and axial loads. 1.0 for other phenomena (From UK National Annex) |

d |
Ratio of the redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment | |

7 m |
Partial factor for material properties |
1.15 for reinforcement (gs) 1.5 for concrete (gc) |

r 0 |
Reference reinforcement ratio |
R fck/1000 |

r |
Required tension reinforcement at mid-span to resist the moment due to the design loads (or at support for cantilevers) |
As/bd |

p |
Required compression reinforcement at mid-span to resist the moment due to the design loads (or at support for cantilevers) |
As2/bd |

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