## Selected symbols

Symbol Definition d deff

Gl h leff M

Qk,w

VRd,m

Ci CZ

Value

Cross sectional area of concrete bh

Area of tension steel

Area of tension steel provided

As, req'd Area of tension steel required

Effective depth

Average effective depth

Design value of concrete compressive strength acc fckGc Characteristic cylinder strength of concrete

Mean value of axial tensile strength

0.30 /ckZ/3 for /ck < C50/60 (from Table 3.1, Eurocode Z)

Characteristic value of permanent action

Overall depth of the section

Effective span of member

Design moment at the ULS

Characteristic value of a variable action

Characteristic value of a variable wind action

Design value of applied shear force

Design value of applied shear stress

Design value of the punching shear resistance without punching shear reinforcement

Design value of the punching shear stress resistance without punching shear reinforcement

Design value of the maximum punching shear resistance along the control section considered

Depth to neutral axis

Limiting value for depth to neutral axis

Coefficient taking account of long term 0.85 for flexure and effects on compressive strength and of axial loads, 1.0 for unfavourable effects resulting from the way other phenomena load is applied (From UK National Annex) Factor for determining punching shear stress

Ratio of the redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment

Partial factor for material properties

Reference reinforcement ratio

/ck/1000

Pl Required tension reinforcement at mid-span to resist the moment due to the design loads (or at support for cantilevers)

Asl bd

Factor for combination value of a variable action

Factor for frequent value of a variable action

Factor for quasi-permanent value of a variable action

s, prov

Lever arm

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