## Introduction And Symbols

1.1 Introduction and symbols

The main objective of this publication is to illustrate through worked examples how EC2(1) may be used in practice. It has been prepared for engineers who are generally familiar with design practice in the UK, particularly to BS 8110(2>.

The worked examples relate primarily to in-situ concrete building structures. The designs are in accordance with EC2: Part 1 as modified by the UK National Application Document'1'. Where necessary, the information given in EC2 has been supplemented by guidance taken from other documents.

The core example, in Section 2, is a re-design of the in-situ concrete office block used in the BCA publication Designed and detailed (BS 8110:1985), by Higgins & Rogers'4'. Other design aspects and forms of construction are fully explored by means of further examples in Sections 3 to 12.

Equations and charts for the design of beam and column sections, taken from the Concise Eurocode for the design of concrete buildingsĀ®, are given in Section 13. Publications used in the preparation of this book, and from which further information may be obtained, are listed in the References. Unless otherwise stated, all references to BS 8110 refer to Part 1.

Two conventions have been adopted in the preparation of this book. Statements followed by ' OK' mark places where the calculated value is shown to be satisfactory. Green type is used to draw attention to key information such as the reinforcement to be provided.

The calculations are cross-referenced to the relevant clauses in EC2 and, where appropriate, to other documents; all references in the right-hand margins are to EC2 unless indicated otherwise.

The symbols used throughout the publication are listed and defined below, and are generally those used in EC2 itself.

### 1.2 Symbols

Area of cross-section Area of concrete cross-section Area of concrete within tensile zone Area of concrete tensile zone external to links Area enclosed within centre-line of thin-walled section Area of prestressing tendons

Area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement Area of compression reinforcement

Minimum area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement

Area of tension reinforcement provided

Area of tension reinforcement required

Area of surface reinforcement

Area of transverse reinforcement within flange of beam

Area of tension reinforcement effective at a section or, for torsion, area of additional longitudinal reinforcement

Area of shear reinforcement or torsion links

Minimum area of shear reinforcement

Effective modulus of elasticity of concrete

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