## Pa

The effects of creep are catered for by the use of an effective modulus of elasticity for the concrete given by

"c,eff

Bond and deterioration of bond under sustained or repeated loading is taken account of by coefficients /31 and /32 in Eqn A.4.2

Curvatures due to shrinkage may be assessed from e a S

es e

Shrinkage curvatures should be calculated for the uncracked and fully cracked conditions and the final curvature assessed by use of Eqn A.4.1.

In accordance with the Code, the rigorous method of assessing deflections is to calculate the curvatures at frequent sections along the member and calculate the deflections by numerical integration.

The simplified approach, suggested by the Code, is to calculate the deflection assuming firstly the whole member to be uncracked and secondly the whole member to be cracked. Eqn A.4.1 is used to assess the final deflection.

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