E

preloaded

At,Ed < At,Rd At, Ed < Sp,Rd

Preloaded 8.8 or 10.9 bolts should be used. Sp,Rd see Table 3.4.

The design tensile force At,Ed should include any force due to prying action, see 3.11. Bolts subjected to both shear force and tensile force should also satisfy the criteria given in Table 3.4.

NOTE: When the preload is not explicitly used in the design calculations for shear resistances but is required for execution purposes or as a quality measure (e.g. fordurability) then the level of preload can be specified in the National Annex.

3.5 Positioning of holes for bolts and rivets

(1) Minimum and maximum spacing and end and edge distances for bolts and rivets are given in Table 3.3.

(2) Minimum and maximum spacing, end and edge distances for structures subjected to fatigue, see EN 1993-1-9.

Table 3.3: Minimum and maximum spacing, end and edge distances

Distances and spacings, see Figure 3.1

Minimum

Maximum1 2) 3)

Structures made from steels conforming to EN 10025 except steels conforming to EN 10025-5

Structures made from steels conforming to EN 10025-5

Steel exposed to the weather or other corrosive influences

Steel not exposed to the weather or other corrosive influences

Steel used unprotected

End distance e1

1,240

4t + 40 mm

0 0

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