Joints

Eurocode 3: Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-8: Eurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten

Calcul des assemblages - Teil 1-8: Bemessung von Anschlüssen

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for formal vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 250.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 3B B-1G5G Brussels

© 2003 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Content Page

1 Introduction 6

1.1 Scope 6

1.2 Distinction between Principles and Application Rules 6

1.3 Definitions 6

1.4 Symbols 7

2 Basis of design 13

2.1 Assumptions 13

2.2 General requirements 13

2.3 Applied forces and moments 13

2.4 Resistance of joints 13

2.5 Design assumptions 14

2.6 Joints loaded in shear subject to impact, vibration and/or load reversal 14

2.7 Eccentricity at intersections 14

2.8 References 15

3 Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins 18

3.1 Bolts, nuts and washers 18

3.1.1 General 18

3.1.2 Preloaded bolts 18

3.2 Rivets 18

3.3 Anchor bolts 18

3.4 Categories of bolted connections 18

3.4.1 Shear connections 18

3.4.2 Tension connections 19

3.5 Positioning of holes for bolts and rivets 20

3.6 Design resistance of individual fasteners 21

3.6.1 Bolts and rivets 21

3.6.2 Injection bolts 25

3.7 Group of fasteners 26

3.8 Long joints 26

3.9 Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts 27

3.9.1 Design Slip resistance 27

3.9.2 Combined tension and shear 28

3.9.3 Hybrid connections 28

3.10 Deductions for fastener holes 28

3.10.1 General 28

3.10.2 Design for block tearing 29

3.10.3 Angles connected by one leg and other unsymmetrically connected members in tension 30

3.10.4 Lug angles 31

3.11 Prying forces 31

3.12 Distribution of forces between fasteners at the ultimate limit state 31

3.13 Connections made with pins 32

3.13.1 General 32

3.13.2 Design of pins 32

4 Welded connections 35

4.1 General 35

4.2 Welding consumables 35

4.3 Geometry and dimensions 35

4.3.1 Type of weld 35

4.3.2 Fillet welds 35

4.3.3 Fillet welds all round 36

4.3.4 Butt welds 36

4.3.5 Plug welds 37

4.3.6 Flare groove welds 38

4.4 Welds with packings 38

4.5 Design resistance of a fillet weld 38

4.5.1 Length of welds 38

4.5.2 Effective throat thickness 38

4.5.3 Design Resistance of fillet welds 39

4.6 Design resistance of fillet welds all round 41

4.7 Design resistance of butt welds 41

4.7.1 Full penetration butt welds 41

4.7.2 Partial penetration butt welds 41

4.7.3 T-butt joints 41

4.8 Design resistance of plug welds 42

4.9 Distribution of forces 42

4.10 Connections to unstiffened flanges 43

4.11 Long joints 44

4.12 Eccentrically loaded single fillet or single-sided partial penetration butt welds 44

4.13 Angles connected by one leg 45

4.14 Welding in cold-formed zones 45

5 Analysis, classification and modelling 47

5.1 Global analysis 47

5.1.1 General 47

5.1.2 Elastic global analysis 47

5.1.3 Rigid-plastic global analysis 48

5.1.4 Elastic- plastic global analysis 48

5.1.5 Global analysis of lattice girders 49

5.2 Classification of joints 51

5.2.1 General 51

5.2.2 Classification by stiffness 51

5.2.3 Classification by strength 52

5.3 Modelling of beam-to-column joints 53

6 Structural joints connecting Horl sections S7

6.1 General 57

6.1.1 Basis 57

6.1.2 Structural properties 57

6.1.3 Basic components of a joint 58

6.2 Design Resistance 62

6.2.1 Internal forces 62

6.2.2 Shear forces 62

6.2.3 Bending moments 63

6.2.4 Equivalent T-stub in tension 64

6.2.5 Equivalent T-stub in compression 67

6.2.6 Design Resistance of basic components 68

6.2.7 Design Moment resistance of beam-to-column joints and splices 81

6.2.8 Design Resistance of column bases with base plates 86

6.3 Rotational stiffness 89

6.3.1 Basic model 89

6.3.2 Stiffness coefficients for basic joint components 91

6.3.3 End-plate connections with two or more bolt-rows in tension 94

6.3.4 Column bases 95

6.4 Rotation capacity 96

6.4.1 General 96

6.4.2 Bolted joints 97

6.4.3 Welded Joints 97

7 Hollow section joints 98

7.1 General 98

7.1.1 Scope 98

7.1.2 Field of application 98

7.2 Design 100

7.2.1 General 100

7.2.2 Failure modes for hollow section connections 100

7.3 Welds 104 7.3.1 Design resistance 104

7.4 Welded joints between CHS members 105

7.4.1 General 105

7.4.2 Uniplanar joints 105

7.4.3 Multiplanar joints 112

7.5 Welded joints between CHS or RHS brace members and RHS chord members 113

7.5.1 General 113

7.5.2 Uniplanar joints 114

7.5.3 Multiplanar joints 125

7.6 Welded joints between CHS or RHS brace members and I or H section chords 126

7.7 Welded joints between CHS or RHS brace members and channel section chord members 129

Foreword

This document (prEN 1993-1-8: 2003) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 250 "Structural Eurocodes", the secretariat of which is held be BSI.

This document is currently submitted to the Formal Vote.

This document will supersede ENV 1993-1-1.

National Annex for EN1993-1-8

This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. The National Standard implementing EN 1993-1-8 should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters for the design of steel structures to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1993-1-8 through: - 2.2(2)

1 Introduction

1.1 Scope

(1) This part of EN 1993 gives design methods for the design of joints subject to predominantly static loading using steel grades S235, S275, S355 and S460.

1.2 Distinction between Principles and Application Rules

(1) The rules in EN 1990 clause 1.4 apply.

1.3 Terms and definitions

(1) The following terms and definitions apply:

- basic component (of a joint): Part of a joint that makes a contribution to one or more of its structural properties.

- connection: Location at which two or more elements meet. For design purposes it is the assembly of the basic components required to represent the behaviour during the transfer of the relevant internal forces and moments at the connection.

- connected member: Any member that is joined to a supporting member or element.

- joint: Zone where two or more members are interconnected. For design purposes it is the assembly of all the basic components required to represent the behaviour during the transfer of the relevant internal forces and moments between the connected members. A beam-to-column joint consists of a web panel and either one connection (single sided joint configuration) or two connections (double sided joint configuration), see Figure 1.1.

- joint configuration: Type or layout of the joint or joints in a zone within which the axes of two or more inter-connected members intersect, see Figure 1.2.

- rotational capacity: The angle through which the joint can rotate without failing.

- rotational stiffness: The moment required to produce unit rotation in a joint.

- structural properties (of a joint): Resistance to internal forces and moments in the connected members, rotational stiffness and rotation capacity.

- uniplanar joint: In a lattice structure a uniplanar joint connects members that are situated in a single plane.

Joint = web panel in shear + connection Left joint = web panel in shear + left connection

Right joint = web panel in shear + right connection a) Single-sided joint configuration b) Double-sided joint configuration

1 webpanel in shear

2 connection

3 components (e.g. bolts, endplate)

Figure 1.1: Parts of a beam-to-column joint configuration it

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