Drinking Water Ebooks Catalog

Water Freedom System

Water Freedom System is a valuable guide that instructs you on to build your oasis. You will get enough water even when there is a shortage in your town. You will have an abundant water supply for your family, animals, and even your garden. This precious device will ensure that you don't have to stockpiles or go through the tedious process of harvesting rainwater. It can provide you with 60 gallons of clean and freshwater every day. You don't have to have previous experience or skills to build or use Water Freedom System. It was designed on a concept used majorly in emergency and home purpose, meaning you can take in the maximum of three hours to build the device. Water Freedom System generator will derive water from the natural air easily, so can be sure to have pure clean water for consumption. The device can be used in any location, even the driest desert. More here...

Water Freedom System Summary


4.8 stars out of 33 votes

Contents: Ebooks
Author: Chris Burns
Official Website: www.waterfreedomsystem.com
Price: $19.69

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The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

I give this ebook my highest rating, 10/10 and personally recommend it.

Survive Water Crisis

Survive Water Crisis is an excellent survival guide that helps individuals develop an actionable plan for what to do in the event of a water emergency. Most of us know that without clean water to drink we will die within a few short days, but how many of us are prepared in the event that a tragedy occurs that affects the water supply? Survive Water Crisis teaches users how to turn polluted water into pure water. Users can learn how to purify water at home and they will not have to drink dirty water during a water crisis. Hence, users will know what to do to enjoy clean drinking water and take full control of their water supply. Thanks to this book, users and their families will not be thirsty during any water crisis. Besides, users will discover how to remain calm and confident enough to handle water crises. Whenever a water crisis arises, users will unnecessarily dread dehydration. Last but not least, this book introduces common water disasters and a report on water supply. The main point driven home in the guide is that, in order to survive, you must develop an action oriented mindset. Most people, when faced with an emergency, will have a tendency to panic and behave irrationally during the critical period following the disaster, when every minute counts. Without a plan, you will likely find yourself running around like a chicken with its head cut off. If you have a contingency in place for this type of disaster, you wont have to figure out what to doyou will be able to just fall back on your plan and get things done.

Survive Water Crisis Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Damian Campbell
Official Website: ww38.survivewatercrisis.com
Price: $49.97

What We Mean By Water Purification

When we refer to water purification, it makes little sense to discuss the subject without first identifying the contaminants that we wish to remove from water. Also, the source of the water is of importance. Our discussion at this point focuses on drinking water. Groundwater sources are of a particular concern, because there are many communities throughout the U.S. that rely on this form. The following are some of the major contaminants that are of concern in water purification applications, as applied to drinking water sources, derived from groundwater. Community Water Systems (29 ) Public Water Systems Noncommunity Water Systems (71 )

The Drinking Water Standards

When the objective of water treatment is to provide drinking water, then we need to select technologies that are not only the best available, but those that will meet local and national quality standards. The primary goals of a water treatment plant The growth of community water supply systems in the United States started in the early 1800s. By 1860, over 400, and by the turn of the century over 3000 major water systems had been built to serve major cities and towns. Many older plants were equipped with slow sand filters. In the mid 1890s, the Louisville Water Company introduced the technologies of coagulation with rapid sand filtration. Federal authority to establish standards for drinking water systems originated with the enactment by Congress in 1883 of the Interstate Quarantine Act, which authorized the Director of the United States Public Health Services (USPHS) to establish and enforce regulations to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases....

National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations

National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color) in drinking water. EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems but does not require systems to comply. However, states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards. The following table summarizes the secondary standards. Table 6. Summary of National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations Table 6. Summary of National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations

Municipal Drinking Water

In the United States, Whiting, Indiana and Strasburg, Pennsylvania have used ozone in their drinking water treatment process. Other cities have run pilot studies. Ozone is used as a bleaching agent for miscellaneous items petroleum, clays, wood products, and chemical baths. It has been proposed as a bleaching agent for hair and as a disinfectant for oils and emulsions. Ozone is used to modify tryptophan and indigo plant juice. It is an important factor in colorfastness. The desulfurization of flue gases by ozone has been considered an application where it promotes liquidphase oxidation. The operations are carried out with vanadium catalysts, and the oxidation step is performed in gasfluidized beds. The desulfurizing effect of ozone on light petroleum distillates has also been reported.

Water Disinfection One More Time

Treatment of a water supply is a safety factor, not a corrective measure. There are a number of ways of purifying water. In evaluating the methods of treatment available, the following points regarding water disinfectants should be considered One of the most widely used disinfecting agents to ensure safe drinking water is chlorine. Chlorine in cylinders is used extensively by municipalities in purification work. However, in this form chlorine gas (Cl2) is far too dangerous for any home purpose. For use in the home, chlorine is readily available as sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) which can be used both for laundering or disinfecting purposes. This product contains a 5.25 solution of sodium hypochlorite which is equivalent to 5 available chlorine. Chlorine is also available as calcium hypochlorite which is sold in the form of dry granules. In this form, it is usually 70 available chlorine. When calcium hypochlorite is used, this chlorinated lime should be mixed thoroughly and...

Introduction Of Physical Methods Of Waste Treatment

We may organize water treatment technologies into three general areas Physical Methods, Chemical Methods, and Energy Intensive Methods. Physical methods of wastewater treatment represent a body of technologies that we refer largely to as solid-liquid separations techniques, of which filtration plays a dominant role. Filtration technology can be broken into two general categories - conventional and non-conventional. This technology is an integral component of drinking water and wastewater treatment applications. It is, however, but one unit process within a modern water treatment plant scheme, whereby there are a multitude of equipment and technology options to select from depending upon the ultimate goals of treatment. To understand the role of filtration, it is important to make distinctions not only with the other technologies employed in the cleaning and purification of industrial and municipal waters, but also with the objectives of different unit processes. Among the energy...

The Contaminants Activated Carbon Can And Cannot Remove

Activated carbon (AC) filtration is most effective in removing organic contaminants from water. Organic substances are composed of two basic elements, carbon and hydrogen. Because organic chemicals are often responsible for taste, odor, and color problems, AC filtration can generally be used to improve aesthetically objectional water. AC filtration will also remove chlorine. AC filtration is recognized by the Water Quality Association as an acceptable method to maintain certain drinking water contaminants within the limits of the EPA National Drinking Water Standards (refer to Table 7). Primary Drinking Water Standards Contaminant

Sample pointSample point

Contact flow rates, Hourly Space Velocity (HSV), or the quantity of feed liquor, are expressed in the number of carbon bed volumes passing through the column per hour. A bed volume is the volume occupied by the carbon bed, including carbon volume and void volume. The recommended HSV range is between 0. 1 and 3.0 depending upon the degree of purification required, the type and concentration of impurity, the nature of the process liquor and the pressure drop. Generally, high levels of purification, high impurity concentrations, and or high viscosities will require a lower HSV As an example - a typical HSV. for decolourisation of starch based sweeteners is 0.25. The carbon will perform more efficiently, but with a tradeoff in the maount of liquid that can be processed through a column in a given period of time. On the other hand, for the removal of traces of organics in drinking water and wastewater, a HSV range of 2 to 3 produces good results.

Disinfection With Halogen Mixtures

It has been reported that the rate of bacterial sterilization by chlorine in the presence of ammonia is accelerated with small amounts of bromides. As little as 0.25 ppm of bromamines can be significant under some conditions. However, if chloramines are produced prior to contact with bromide ions, the reaction and subsequent effect are reduced. Improved germicidal activity has also been shown for mixtures containing bromides and iodides with various chlorine releasing compounds. Bromide improves the disinfecting properties of dichloroisocyanuric acid and hypochlorite against several bacteria. Bromine-containing compounds are useful for their combined bleaching and disinfectant properties. There has been the concern that the use of interhalogen compounds in wastewater disinfection could produce unknown organic and inorganic halogen-containing substances. In the case of iodine, concern has been expressed over the physiological aspects in water supplies. Extensive studies have been...

What Waterborne Diseases

Untreated waters contain a number of harmful pollutants which give the water color, taste, and odor. These pollutants include viruses, bacteria, organic materials, and soluble inorganic compounds, and these must be removed or rendered harmless before the water can be used again. A breakdown of the documented outbreaks identifies acute gastroenteritis, hepatitis shigellosis, ciardiasis, chemical poisoning, typhoid fever, and salmonellosis. Sources of contaminated water can be traced to sernipublic water systems, municipal water systems, and to individual water systems.

Water Quality Test Methods

Standards for drinking water specify that a water is safe provided that the test method does not reveal more than an average of one coliform organism per 100 ml. The number of pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella typhosa, in domestic wastewater is generally less than 1 per mil coliforms, and the average density of enteric viruses has been measured as a virus-tocoliform ratio of 1 100,000. The die-off rate of pathogenic bacteria is greater than the death rate of coliforms outside of the intestinal tract of animals. Consequently, upon exposure to treatment, a reduction in the number of pathogens relative to coliforms will occur. Water quality based on a standard of less than one coliform per 100 ml is statistically safe for human consumption. That is, there is a high improbability of ingesting any pathogens. This is an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard applicable only to processed water where treatment includes chlorination. Coliform criteria for body-contact water use...

Treatment Options Available To Us

An important concept is that a single disinfectant may not be capable of purifying water to the desired degree. Also, it might not be practicable or cost effective. This has given rise to a variety of treatment combinations in series or in parallel. The analysis further indicates that the search for the perfect disinfectant for all situations is a sterile exercise. It has been estimated that in the United States only 60 percent of municipal waste effluent is disinfected prior to discharge and, in a number of cases, only on a seasonal basis. Coupling this fact with the demonstration that various sewage treatment processes achieve only partial removal of viruses leaves us with a substantial problem to resolve.

Sterilization Using Ozone

Generated from air, 4 kWh lb from oxygen, and 5.5 kWh lb from oxygen-recycling systems. Operating costs for air systems are essentially the electric power costs for oxygen systems the cost of oxygen (2 to 30 lb) must be added to the electrical cost. Capital costs of large integrated ozone systems are 300 to 400 a pound per day of ozone generated and 100 a pound per day of ozone for the generator alone. Actual uses of ozone include odor control, industrial chemicals synthesis, industrial water and wastewater treatment, and drinking water. Lesser applications appear in fields of combustion and propulsion, foods and pharmaceuticals, flue gas-sulfur removal, and mineral and metal refining. Potential markets include pulp and paper bleaching, power plant cooling water, and municipal wastewater treatment. The odor control market is the largest and much of this market is in sewage treatment plants. Use of ozone for odor control is comparatively simple and efficient. The application is for...

Some Important Definitions

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) - The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology and taking cost into consideration. MCLs are enforceable standards. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) - The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety and are non-enforceable public health goals. Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL) - The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants. level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminants. Treatment Technique - A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking...

Some General Comments

So there we have it - a broad overview of a complex subject that spans both technical and legal arenas. Much of the discussions have focused on drinking water, but from this point forward we will depart from the subject and only address this in passing. Recognize that there are a large number of technologies that are applied to treating water. The combination of technologies needed for a water treatment application depend on what we are ultimately trying to achieve in terms of final water quality. become fashionable is Pollution Prevention, the fact remains that what we are doing is removing unwanted contaminants from water, whether it be to meet drinking water purposes, or to meet a discharge standard to a local (nonpotable) water body. The contaminants may be caused by man, or they simply exist from nature. Either way, we are applying technologies aimed at removing these constituents, and ultimately these concentrated forms of pollutants require disposal. In this regard, physical...

Recommended Resources For The Reader

You can obtain in-depth information on drinking water plant design issues from the following references. 3. Pedden, T. M. Drinking Water and Ice Supplies and Their Relations to Health and Disease, G. P. Putnam's Sons, The Knickerbocker Press, New York, 1981 7. Pontius, F. W. An Update of the Federal Drinking Water Regs, Jour. AWWA, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 48-58, March 1998. 8. USEPA. The National Public Water System Program, FY 1988 Compliance Report, Office of Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, March 1990. 9. Goodrich, J. A., Adams, J. Q ., Lykins, B. W., and Clark, R. M. Safe Drinking Water from Small Systems Treatment Options, Jour AWWA, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 49-55, May 1992. 10. USEPA. Technologies for Upgrading Existing or Designing New Drinking Water Treatment Facilities, EPA 625 4- 89 023, Office of Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, March 1990.

Reactions for Hydrogen Cation Exchanger Resins Regeneration Reactions

This is one of the ion-exchange processes used in water purification. In this process, sodium ions from the solid phase are exchanged with the hardness ions from the aqueous phase. Consider a bed of ion-exchange resin having sodium as the exchangeable ion, with water containing calcium and magnesium hardness allowed to percolate through this bed. Let us denote the ion-exchange resinous material as RNa, where R stands for resin matrix and Na is its mobile exchange ion. The hard water will exchange Ca. and Mg ions rapidly, so that water at the effluent will be almost completely softened. Calcium and magnesium salts will be converted into corresponding sodium salts.

Questions For Thinking And Discussing

Explain the process by which EPA established drinking water quality discharge standards. 27. List the various types of plant forms that can enter into and contaminate drinking water. 28. Make a list of the animal forma that we are most concerned with in contaminating drinking water sources.

Principles Of Ozone Effluent Treatment

Ozone was first discovered by the Dutch philosopher Van Marun in 1785. In 1840, Schonbein reported and named ozone from the Greek word ozein, meaning to smell. The earliest use of ozone as a germicide occurred in France in 1886, when de Meritens demonstrated that diluted ozonized air could sterilize polluted water. In 1893, the first drinking water treatment plant to use ozone was constructed in Oudshorrn, Holland. Other plants quickly followed at Wiesbaden (1901) and Paderborn (1902) in Germany. In 1906, a plant in Nice, France, was constructed using ozone for disinfection. Today, there are over 1,000 drinking water treatment plants in Europe utilizing ozone for one or more purposes. In the United States, the first ozonation plant was constructed in Whiting, Indiana, in 1941 for taste and odor control. A significant impetus from time to time for developing new methods is dissatisfaction with chlorination. Chlorine affects taste and odor and produces chloramines and a wide variety of...

Introducing The Physical Treatment Methods

The following technologies are among the most commonly used physical methods of purifying water Distillation - Distillation is the evaporation and condensation of water to purify water. Distillation has two disadvantages 1) A large energy input is required and 2) If simple distillation is used, chemical contaminants with boiling points below water will be condensed along with the water. Distillation is most commonly used to remove dissolved minerals and salts from water. The simplest form of a distillation for use in the home is a solar still. A solar still uses solar radiation to evaporate water below the boiling point, and the cooler ambient air to condense the vapor. The water can be extracted from the soil, vegetation piled in the still, or contaminated water (such as radiator fluid or salt water) can be added to the still. While per still output is low, they are an important technique if water is in short supply. Other forms of distillation require a concentrated heat source to...

Flocculation And Filtration Together

Of settled or filtrated water, depending on the point at which it is introduced. Preconditioning of the sand surface of filters by adding polyelectrolytes is an alternative use of sand filters as a coagulator-flocculator. In the treatment of drinking water the method depends on the limitations of these products in foodstuffs. The addition of polyphosphates to a water being subjected to coagulation usually has a negative effect specifically the breaking of the agglomeration velocity of the particles during flocculation will occur in sand filtration. The addition of polyphosphates simultaneously with phosphates can be of value in controlling corrosion. This sometimes makes it possible to avoid serious calcium carbonate precipitation at the surface of filter grains when handling alkaline water. The application concerns very rapidly incrusting water while maintaining high hardness in solution. The addition of polyphosphates involves deeper penetration of matter into the filter mass....

Application To Subsurface Treatment

Fact that these discharges could potentially reach groundwater sources that supplied drinking water to the public. In other situations, companies acted out of pure ignorance. Up until and throughout the 1950s, and even later, many industry people believed that because many of the solvents discussed below evaporate quickly, a simply means of disposal was to spread waste or spent solvents directly onto the ground or in unlined lagoons. Today we have laws that protect our water resources, along with widespread public awareness of the health effects of toxic pollutants. At the same time there are rapidly expanding demands on the potable water supplies by the ever growing population of the United States. Consequently, research into the behavior of chemicals in groundwater and in the human body greatly expanded in the public and private sectors of many developed countries. Many industrial areas have discovered contaminated water supplies, which should not at all be surprising, given the...

Nonconventional Treatment Methods

Electromagnetic Waves (EM) - Electromagnetic radiation is the propagation of energy through space by means of electric and magnetic fields that vary in time. Electromagnetic radiation may be specified in terms of frequency, vacuum wavelength, or photon energy. For water purification, EM waves up to the low end of the UV band will result in heating the water. (This includes infrared as well as most lasers.) In the visible range, some photochemical reactions such as dissociation and increased ionization may take place. At the higher frequencies, it Sound - A sound wave is an alteration in pressure, stress, particle displacement, particle velocity, or a combination of these that is propagated in an elastic medium. Sound waves, therefore, require a medium for transmission that is, they may not be transmitted in a vacuum. The sound spectrum covers all possible frequencies. The average human ear responds to frequencies between 16 Hz and 16 kHz. Frequencies above 20 kHz are called ultrasonic...

Pollution Prevention Options

There are concerns that land application of sludge will result in an increase of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, chemicals and metals in drinking water reservoirs, aquifers, and the food chain. This raises additional concerns of cumulative effects of metals in cropped soils. Research shows that if metals such as zinc, copper, lead, nickel, mercury, and cadmium are allowed to build up in soils due to many applications of sludges over the years, they could be released at levels harmful to crops, animals, and humans. While some of these metals are necessary micronutrients, at higher levels they may be harmful to plants, particularly those grown on acid soils (soils with a low pH). Cadmium, a suspected carcinogen, and mercury cause even greater concern because of their toxic effects on animals and humans. Likewise, synthetic organic compounds such as dioxins and PCBs, if present, cause concern about ecological and human health impacts. The degree of risk depends directly on the...


Iodine's use as a water purification method emerged after World War 2, when the U.S. military was looking for a replacement for Halazone tablets. Iodine was found to be in many ways superior to chlorine for use in treating small batches of water. Iodine is less sensitive to the pH and organic content of water, and is effective in lower doses. Some individuals are allergic to iodine, and there is some question about long term use of iodine. The safety of long-term exposure to low levels of iodine was proven when inmates of three Florida prisons were given water disinfected with 0.5 to 1.0 ppm iodine for 15 years. No effects on the health or thyroid function of previously healthy inmates was observed. Of 101 infants born to prisoners drinking the water for 122- 270 days, none showed detectable thyroid enlargement. However, 4 individuals with preexisting cases of hyperthyroidism became more symptomatic, while consuming the water. Nevertheless, experts are reluctant to recommend iodine...


Chlorine is familiar to most people as it is used to treat virtually all municipal water systems in the United States. Chlorine has a number of problems when used for field treatment of water. When chlorine reacts with organic material, it attaches itself to nitrogen containing compounds (ammonium ions and amino acids), leaving less free chlorine to continue disinfection. Carcinogenic trihalomethanes are also produced, though this is only a problem with long-term exposure. Trihalomethanes can also be filtered out with a charcoal filter, though it is more efficient to use the same filter to remove organics before the water is chlorinated. Unless free chlorine is measured, disinfection can not be guaranteed with moderate doses of chlorine. One solution is superchlorination, the addition of far more chlorine than is needed. This must again be filtered through activated charcoal to remove the large amounts of chlorine, or hydrogen peroxide can be added to drive the chlorine off. Either...

What Filtration Is

Filtration is a fundamental unit operation that, within the context of this volume, separates suspended particle matter from water. Although industrial applications of this operation vary significantly, all filtration equipment operate by passing the solution or suspension through a porous membrane or medium, upon which the solid particles are retained on the medium's surface or within the pores of the medium, while the fluid, referred to as the filtrate, passes through. In a very general sense, the operation is performed for one or both of the following reasons. It can be used for the recovery of valuable products (either the suspended solids or the fluid), or it may be applied to purify the liquid stream, thereby improving product quality, or both. Examples of various processes that rely on filtration include adsorption, chromatography, operations involving the flow of suspensions through packed columns, ion exchange, and various reactor engineering applications. In petroleum...

Source Type

Heavy Metals - Heavy metals represent problems in terms of groundwater pollution. The best way to identify their presence is by a lab test of the water or by contacting county health departments. There are concerns of chronic exposure to low levels of heavy metals in drinking water. Organic Compounds - Water can be contaminated by a number of organic compounds, such as chloroform, gasoline, pesticides, and herbicides from a variety of industrial and agricultural operations or applications. These contaminants must be identified in a lab test. It is unlikely groundwater will suddenly become contaminated, unless a quantity of chemicals is allowed to enter a well or penetrating the aquifer. One exception is when the aquifer is located in limestone. Not only will water flow faster through limestone, but the rock is prone to forming vertical channels or sinkholes that will rapidly allow contamination from surface water. Surface water may show great variations in chemical contamination...


Silver has been suggested by some for water treatment and may still be available outside the U.S. Its use is currently out of favor due to the EPA's establishment of a 50 ppb MCL (Maximum Contaminate Level) limit on silver in drinking water. This limit is set to avoid argyrosis, a cosmetic blue gray staining of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. As the disease requires a net accumulation of 1 g of silver in the body, one expert calculated that you could drink water treated at 50 ppb for 27 years before accumulating 1 g. Silver has only be proven to be effective against bacteria and protozoan cysts, though it is quite likely also effective against viruses. Silver can be used in the form of a silver salt, commonly silver nitrate, a colloidal suspension, or a bed of metallic silver. Electrolysis can also be used to add metallic silver to a solution. Some evidence has suggested that silver deposited on carbon block filters can kill pathogens without adding as much silver to the water.

Key Words

Carbon adsorption-Carbon adsorption is a technology that has been used widely in the drinking water treatment industry, and that is being used with increasing frequency in the wastewater and hazardous waste industry. The process takes advantage of the highly adsorptive properties of specially prepared carbon known as activated carbon. The porous structure of the carbon provides a large internal surface area onto which organic molecules may become attached. Many organic substances, including chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and others, may be removed from solution using carbon adsorption. Carbon adsorption is achieved by passing water residues through one or more columns containing granular activated carbon operated in parallel or in series. Carbon columns may be operated in either an upflow (expanded bed) or a downflow (fixed bed) mode. In theory, spent carbon may be regenerated. In practice, however, spent carbon must frequently be discarded, especially if high...

Chlorine Dioxide

At present, chlorine dioxide is primarily used as a bleaching chemical in the pulp and paper industry. It is also used in large amounts by the textile industry, as well as for the &aching of flour, fats, oils, and waxes. In treating drinking water, chlorine dioxide is used in this country for taste and odor control, decolorization, disinfection, provision of residual disinfectant in water distribution systems, and oxidation of iron, manganese, and organics. The principal use of chlorine dioxide in the United States is for the removal of taste and odor caused by phenolic compounds in raw water supplies. Under drinking water plant treatment conditions, humic materials and or resorcinol do not produce trihalomethanes with chlorine dioxide even when a slight excess of chlorine (1 percent to 2 percent) is present. Also, saturated aliphatic compounds are not reactive with chlorine dioxide. Alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding acids.

Flood Control Dams

One way to avoid floods is to take the obvious precaution of living where there is no danger of high waters. It has always been convenient and often necessary to build homes and factories on the floodplains along rivers and streams and on the seacoasts. American pioneer settlers depended upon the streams for drinking water, transportation, and power to run their mills and factories. Floodplains, deep with the silt laid down by overflowing rivers, are fertile farmlands. The earliest towns and farms, therefore, were established along the riverfronts, and large portions of them were built on land that was subject to periodic flooding. While the communities were small, the damages suffered from floods were limited. With the great population and industrial growth of the cities, flood damage has become a serious national problem. One of the basic approaches to flood control is to minimize the extent of flooding by building dams, reservoirs, levees, and other engineering works. Dams and the...

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