Control of differential seismic ground motions

(1) The structural elements located above and below the isolation interface should be sufficiently rigid in both horizontal and vertical directions, so that the effects of differential seismic ground displacements are minimised. This does not apply to bridges or elevated structures, where the piles and piers located under the isolation interface may be deformable. (2) In buildings, (1) is considered satisfied if all the conditions stated below are satisfied a) A rigid diaphragm is provided...

Precast largepanel walls

(1) EN 1992-1-1, Section 10 applies with the following modifications a) The total minimum vertical reinforcement ratio refers to the actual cross-sectional area of concrete and should include the vertical bars of the web and the boundary elements b) Mesh reinforcement in a single curtain is not allowed c) A minimum confinement should be provided to the concrete near the edge of all precast panels, as specified in 5.4.3.4.2 or 5.5.3.4.5 for columns, over a square section of side length bw, where...

Evaluation of precast structures

(1) In modelling of precast structures, the following evaluations should be made. a) Identification of the different roles of the structural elements as one of the following - those resisting only gravity loads, e.g. hinged columns around a reinforced concrete core - those resisting both gravity and seismic loads, e.g. frames or walls - those providing adequate connection between structural elements, e.g. floor or roof diaphragms. b) Ability to fulfil the seismic resistance provisions of 5.1 to...

Beams and columns

(1) Beams and columns with axial forces should meet the following minimum resistance requirement Npl,Rd(MEd) > NEd,G + 1,1yov Q.NEd,E (6.12) Npl,Rd(MEd) is the design buckling resistance of the beam or the column in accordance with EN 1993, taking into account the interaction of the buckling resistance with the bending moment MEd, defined as its design value in the seismic design situation NEd,G is the axial force in the beam or in the column due to the non-seismic actions included in the...

Structural types and behaviour factors Structural types

1 P Composite steel-concrete structures shall be assigned to one of the following structural types according to the behaviour of their primary resisting structure under seismic actions a Composite moment resisting frames are those with the same definition and limitations as in 6.3.1 1 a, but in which beams and columns may be either structural steel or composite steel-concrete see Figure 6.1 b Composite concentrically braced frames are those with the same definition and limitations as in 6.3.1...

Types of construction and behaviour factors

1 Depending on the masonry type used for the seismic resistant elements, masonry buildings should be assigned to one of the following types of construction a unreinforced masonry construction b confined masonry construction c reinforced masonry construction NOTE 1 Construction with masonry systems which provide an enhanced ductility of the structure is also included see Note 2 to Table 9.1 . NOTE 2 Frames with infill masonry are not covered in this section. 2 Due to its low tensile strength...

Detailing rules for coupling beams of ductility class DCM

1 P Coupling beams shall have an embedment length into the reinforced concrete wall sufficient to resist the most adverse combination of moment and shear generated by the bending and shear strength of the coupling beam. The embedment length le shall be taken to begin inside the first layer of the confining reinforcement in the wall boundary member see Figure 7.10 . The embedment length le shall be not less than 1,5 times the height of the coupling beam 2 P The design of beam wall connections...

Detailing for local ductility

Beam Reinforcement Detailing

1 P The regions of a primary seismic beam up to a distance lcr hw where hw denotes the depth of the beam from an end cross-section where the beam frames into a beam-column joint, as well as from both sides of any other cross-section liable to yield in the seismic design situation, shall be considered as being critical regions. 2 In primary seismic beams supporting discontinued cut-off vertical elements, the regions up to a distance of 2hw on each side of the supported vertical element should...

Design and detailing rules for frames with eccentric bracings Design criteria

1 P Frames with eccentric bracings shall be designed so that specific elements or parts of elements called seismic links are able to dissipate energy by the formation of plastic bending and or plastic shear mechanisms. 2 P The structural system shall be designed so that a homogeneous dissipative behaviour of the whole set of seismic links is realised. NOTE The rules given hereafter are intended to ensure that yielding, including strain hardening effects in the plastic hinges or shear panels,...

Coupling elements of coupled walls

Concrete Shear Wall With Coupling Beams

1 P Coupling of walls by means of slabs shall not be taken into account, as it is not effective. 2 The provisions of 5.5.3.1 may only be applied to coupling beams, if either one of the following conditions is fulfilled a Cracking in both diagonal directions is unlikely. An acceptable application rule is b A prevailing flexural mode of failure is ensured. An acceptable application rule is l h gt 3. 3 If neither of the conditions in 2 is met, the resistance to seismic actions should be provided...

Bending and shear resistance

1 P Flexural and shear resistances shall be computed in accordance with EN 1992-11 2004, unless specified otherwise in the following paragraphs, using the value of the axial force resulting from the analysis in the seismic design situation. 2 In primary seismic walls the value of the normalised axial load vd should not exceed 0,4. 3 P Vertical web reinforcement shall be taken into account in the calculation of the flexural resistance of wall sections. 4 Composite wall sections consisting of...

Energy dissipation capacity and ductility classes

1 P The design of earthquake resistant concrete buildings shall provide the structure with an adequate capacity to dissipate energy without substantial reduction of its overall resistance against horizontal and vertical loading. To this end, the requirements and criteria of Section 2 apply. In the seismic design situation adequate resistance of all structural elements shall be provided, and non-linear deformation demands in critical regions should be commensurate with the overall ductility...

Design Of Buildings

1 P Section 4 contains general rules for the earthquake-resistant design of buildings and shall be used in conjunction with Sections 2, 3 and 5 to 9. 2 Sections 5 to 9 are concerned with specific rules for various materials and elements used in buildings. 3 Guidance on base-isolated buildings is given in Section 10. 4.2 Characteristics of earthquake resistant buildings 4.2.1 Basic principles of conceptual design 1 P In seismic regions the aspect of seismic hazard shall be taken into account in...

Base Isolation

10.3 Fundamental 10.4 Compliance 10.5 General design 10.5.1 General provisions concerning the 10.5.2 Control of undesirable 10.5.3 Control of differential seismic ground 10.5.4 Control of displacements relative to surrounding ground and constructions 192 10.5.5 Conceptual design of base isolated 10.6 Seismic 10.7 Behaviour 10.8 Properties of the isolation 10.9 Structural 10.9.2 Equivalent linear 10.9.3 Simplified linear 10.9.4 Modal simplified linear 10.9.5 Time-history 10.9.6 Non structural...