Foreward

The introduction of Eurocodes is a challenge and opportunity for the European cement and concrete industry. These design codes, considered to be the most advanced in the world, will lead to a common understanding of the design principles for concrete structures for owners, operators and users, design engineers, contractors and the manufacturers of concrete products. The advantages of unified codes include the preparation of common design aids and software and the establishment of a common understanding of research and development needs in Europe.

As with any new design code, it is important to have an understanding of the principles and background, as well as design aids to assist in the design process. The European cement and concrete industry represented by CEMBUREAU, BIBM and ERMCO recognised this need and set up a task group to prepare two documents, Commentary to EN 1992 and Worked Examples to EN 1992. The Commentary to EN 1992 captures te background to the code and Worked Examples to EN 1992 demonstrates the practical application of the code. Both the documents were prepared by a team led by Professor Giuseppe Mancini, Chairman of CEN TC 250/SC2 Concrete Structures, and peer reviewed by three eminent engineers who played a leading role in the development of the concrete Eurocode: Professor Narayanan, Professor Spehl and Professor Walraven.

This is an excellent example of pan-European collaboration and BIBM, CEMBUREAU and ERMCO are delighted to make these authoritative documents available to design engineers, software developers and all others with an interest in promoting excellence in concrete design throughout Europe. As chairman of the Task Group, I would like to thank the authors, peer reviewers and members of the joint Task Force for working efficiently and effectively in producing these documents.

Dr Pal Chana

Chairman, CEMBUREAU/BIBM/ERMCO TF 5.5: Eurocodes

Attributable Foreword to the Commentary and Worked Examples to EC2

Eurocodes are one of the most advanced suite of structural codes in the world. They embody the collective experience and knowledge of whole of Europe. They are born out of an ambitious programme initiated by the European Union. With a wealth of code writing experience in Europe, it was possible to approach the task in a rational and logical manner. Eurocodes reflect the results of research in material technology and structural behaviour in the last fifty years and they incorporate all modern trends in structural design.

Like many current national codes in Europe, Eurocode 2 (EC 2) for concrete structures draws heavily on the CEB Model Code. And yet the presentation and terminology, conditioned by the agreed format for Eurocodes, might obscure the similarities to many national codes. Also EC 2 in common with other Eurocodes, tends to be general in character and this might present difficulty to some designers at least initially. The problems of coming to terms with a new set of codes by busy practising engineers cannot be underestimated. This is the backdrop to the publication of 'Commentary and Worked Examples to EC 2' by Professor Mancini and his colleagues. Commissioned by CEMBUREAU, BIBM, EFCA and ERMCO this publication should prove immensely valuable to designers in discovering the background to many of the code requirements. This publication will assist in building confidence in the new code, which offers tools for the design of economic and innovative concrete structures. The publication brings together many of the documents produced by the Project Team during the development of the code. The document is rich in theoretical explanations and draws on much recent research. Comparisons with the ENV stage of EC2 are also provided in a number of cases. The chapter on EN 1990 (Basis of structural design) is an added bonus and will be appreciated by practioners. Worked examples further illustrate the application of the code and should promote understanding.

The commentary will prove an authentic companion to EC 2 and deserves every success.

Professor R S Narayanan

Chairman CEN/TC 250/SC2 (2002 - 2005)

Foreword to Commentary to Eurocode 2 and Worked Examples

When a new code is made, or an existing code is updated, a number of principles should be regarded:

1. Codes should be based on clear and scientifically well founded theories, consistent and coherent, corresponding to a good representation of the structural behaviour and of the material physics.

2. Codes should be transparent. That means that the writers should be aware, that the code is not prepared for those who make it, but for those who will use it.

3. New developments should be recognized as much as possible, but not at the cost of too complex theoretical formulations.

4. A code should be open-minded, which means that it cannot be based on one certain theory, excluding others. Models with different degrees of complexity may be offered.

5. A code should be simple enough to be handled by practicing engineers without considerable problems. On the other hand simplicity should not lead to significant lack of accuracy. Here the word "accuracy" should be well understood. Often so-called "accurate" formulations, derived by scientists, cannot lead to very accurate results, because the input values can not be estimated with accuracy.

6. A code may have different levels of sophistication. For instance simple, practical rules can be given, leading to conservative and robust designs. As an alternative more detailed design rules may be offered, consuming more calculation time, but resulting in more accurate and economic results.

For writing a Eurocode, like EC-2, another important condition applies. International consensus had to be reached, but not on the cost of significant concessions with regard to quality. A lot of effort was invested to achieve all those goals.

It is a rule for every project, that it should not be considered as finalized if implementation has not been taken care of. This book may, further to courses and trainings on a national and international level, serve as an essential and valuable contribution to this implementation. It contains extensive background information on the recommendations and rules found in EC2. It is important that this background information is well documented and practically available, as such increasing the transparency. I would like to thank my colleagues of the Project Team, especially Robin Whittle, Bo Westerberg, Hugo Corres and Konrad Zilch, for helping in getting together all background information. Also my colleague Giuseppe Mancini and his Italian team are gratefully acknowledged for providing a set of very illustrative and practical working examples. Finally I would like to thank CEMBURAU, BIBM, EFCA and ERMCO for their initiative, support and advice to bring out this publication.

Joost Walraven

Convenor of Project Team for EC2 (1998 -2002)

Authorisation to use the Background Document(s) of EN 1992

I hereby agree to grant the European Concrete Platform, its founding members and for their respective members as well as for future European branch associations to become member of the European Concrete Platform and their members, the licence to use the following documents hereinafter collectively referred to as "the Material" as specified below:

Background documents prepared as part of my work in the Project Team for EN 1992-1-1 (2004).

The European Concrete Platform, its founding members and for their respective members as well as for future European branch associations to become member of the European Concrete Platform and their members, are authorised, for free, worldwide, for the whole duration over which an intellectual property right protects the Material to reproduce such Material, including to adapt, translate into any language, combine with other documents, summarise and to communicate to the public such Material, whatever the technique or the format used e.g. via Internet, paper or electronic, via web, CD-ROM, etc.

I hereby warrant and guarantee that I hold all the necessary rights over the Material in order to grant European Concrete Platform, its founding members and for their respective members as well as for future European branch associations to become member of the European Concrete Platform and their members, the above mentioned licence and, if need be, I have obtained all necessary authorisations from any third party which may hold an intellectual property right over the Material.

Consequently, I shall keep European Concrete Platform, its founding members and for their respective members as well as for future European branch associations to become member of the European Concrete Platform and their members, collectively or/and individually immune from any liability and/or claim based on any violation of an intellectual or contractual right by the use by European Concrete Platform, its founding members and for their respective members as well as for future European branch associations to become member of the European Concrete Platform and their members, of the Material as provided for in this agreement.

Done in Stockholm, in 1 exemplar.

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