Figure 6.41. Punching capacities related to resistance of the shear reinforcement (Regan [24])

The increase of the punching shear capacity by shear reinforcement is limited to a bound. In the version of EC-2 of 1988 the upper bound was formulated as vRd,max = 1.4 vRd1, where vRd1 follows from Eq. 6.31b. In a redraft in 1991 this value was increased to 1.6 vRd1. This upper limit will, however, hardly be reached in practical situations, where normal punching shear reinforcement is used. However, using shear heads and shear studs, which can be more efficient than stirrups as shear reinforcement, higher values of the upper punching capacity than 1.6vRd1 can be reached. Therefore a



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