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Figure 5.17. Comparison between EN and ENV criteria

Figure 5.17. Comparison between EN and ENV criteria

5.8.3.3.3 Effect of flexible moment restraint

Flexible moment restraint at the base will reduce the buckling load. This effect can be directly included in the S-factor for the buckling load. (For isolated members this effect is normally taken into account by increasing the effective length. In the global analysis of structures, however, a direct reduction of the buckling load is more convenient, since the effective length is not a practical parameter for bracing members and systems having varying axial load). For bracing units with two or more storeys, reasonably equal increment of the vertical load per storey and constant cross section, the isolated effect of flexible end restraint can be accurately modelled by the factor

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