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Figure 5.14. Comparison between different definitions of k-factors; examples.

Figure 5.14. Comparison between different definitions of k-factors; examples.

5.8.3.2 (4) addresses the question whether an adjacent column (in a storey above or below) in a node should be considered as using the same restraint as the column considered, or as contributing to the restraint. This will depend on the magnitude of the axial force in the adjacent column. If both columns connected to the node reach their respective buckling load at the same time (under proportional increase of loads), they will both have to share the restraint provided by other connected members (beams), and k should then be defined as k = -

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