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For n = 1,0, the average reduction due to creep is considerable, having in mind that ^ef = 1 represents a rather moderate effect of creep. With a higher value of ^ef the reduction is more severe (most of the comparisons were made with ^ef = 0 and 2 respectively, see Appendix 1).

The effect of ro is considerable, as can be seen from both figure 5.11 and table 5.2. Without ro as a parameter, the slenderness limit would have to be either very conservative for high to moderate values of ro, or on the unsafe side for low values. However, since the reinforcement is normally not known when the slenderness criterion is checked, a default value based on a low value of w has also been given. This can be used for a conservative estimation, or as a starting value in an iterative process.

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