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The rigorous method for calculating deflections is the most appropriate method for determining a realistic estimate of deflection. However, it is only suitable for use with computer software. The Concrete Centre has produced a number of spreadsheets that use this method to carry out deflection calculations for a variety of slabs and beams9. These offer a cost-effective way to carry out detailed deflection calculations, and they include the ability to consider the effect of early age loading of the concrete. Figure 3 illustrates the principles of the method and shows how the factors affecting deflection are considered in the rigorous deflection calculations.
Eurocode 2 provides specific guidance on the design of foundations for punching shear, and this varies from that given for slabs. In Eurocode 2 the shear perimeter has rounded corners and the forces directly resisted by the ground should be deducted (to avoid unnecessarily conservative designs). The critical perimeter should be found iteratively, but it is generally acceptable to check at d and 2d. Alternatively, a spreadsheet could be used (e.g. spreadsheet TCC81 from Spreadsheets for concrete design to BS 8110 and Eurocode 27). The procedure for determining the punching shear requirements is shown in Figure 4.
Adsorption to activated carbon is a function of diffusion rate. This means that the columns should be operated at a temperature at which the liquor approaches the viscosity of water but will not decompose or form too much color. If the process requires operation at elevated temperature, a jacketed tube should be used. The column temperature is controlled by circulating water of the required temperature through the jacket. This requires a thermostatic bath enabling accurate temperature control. When loading the column, care should be taken to avoid entrapping air in the carbon bed. Entrapped air can cause channeling during column operation, preventing complete contact of the process liquor with the carbon particles. In small columns, entrapped air can be avoided by pouring out the carbon in boiling water just before loading. Most of the excess water can be poured off, along with most of the fine carbon particles. About one quarter of the column should be filled with water before...
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