A Calibration Of Test Equipment A General

(1) All measurements necessary for the performance of tests should be traceable, to standards of measurement through an unbroken chain of calibrations. The number of links in the chain of calibrations should be no greater than is necessary to achieve the required accuracy. (2) Measuring instruments and test equipment should be calibrated or re-calibrated either by a national accredited external organisation, or in-house by the laboratory's own staff using calibrated reference standards. (3)...

Chemical Testing Of Soils And Groundwater

(1) Examples of test procedures for the five chemical tests are given in the documents listed in Annex B.6. Equivalent methods also exist in other national standards and in textbooks. (2) The above routine chemical tests utilise traditional testing methods which are within the capability of many geotechnical laboratories. Chemical tests for the presence of other substances should normally be performed by a specialist chemical laboratory. (3) One hundred grams of dry soil is sufficient for most...

A Classification Testing Of Rock Material A General

(1) Examples of tests for the classification of rock are given in the documents listed in Annex B.13. (2) Nationally and internationally recognised classification systems exist for different purposes. Rock mass classification systems, based on semi-numerical methods, exist for engineering purposes as summarised by Bieniawski (1989) Engineering Rock Mass Classification . (3) The classification of the rock mass based on cores calls for the highest possible core recovery to identify...

A Compressibility Testing Of Soils A Test procedures

(1) Examples of test procedure for the testing of compressibility of soils are given in the documents listed in Annex B.7. (2) For undisturbed samples of normally or lightly overconsolidated cohesive soils, one loading-unloading cycle is normally sufficient to determine the compressibility. With more heavily overconsolidated soils which have been affected by sample disturbance, a preloading cycle should be done to reduce deformations due to sample disturbance, bedding effects and horizontal...

Evaluation of test results

(1) If the water in the soil is saline, the dissolved salts will remain in the soil after drying and may give an incorrect water content result. A more appropriate value is the fluid content i.e. the mass of fluid (water plus salts) per unit mass of dry soil. (2) For a coarse soil, the water content obtained in the laboratory on a sample for which the maximum grain diameter is limited by the sample size, may differ from the in place water content. In such a case, the water content should be...

Frost susceptibility A Test procedures

(1) Examples of test procedures for the determination of frost susceptibility of soils are given in the documents listed in Annex B.5. (2) A sample in its natural state can be obtained unfrozen in soft clayey and silty soil or frozen in clay, silt and sand (without gravel). If the sample size is not directly suitable for testing, the sample can be reshaped, doing this carefully. (3) The sample that will be recompacted can be strongly remoulded as long as the grain size distribution is not...

Particle size analysis

(1) Examples of how to perform tests for the particle size analysis of soils are given in the documents listed in Annex B.5. (2) For coarse-grained cohesionless soils (predominantly gravel and or sand sizes), the particle size distribution of soils of this category is determined by sieving after washing, and sedimentation is not usually necessary. For fine-grained soils (predominantly silt and or clay sizes), the sedimentation procedure is used, including sieving of any sand-sized particles....

Planning of the test programme

(1) The direct shear (box or ring shear) test is run preferably for soils and stability conditions where a distinct rupture plane is expected to develop or when the strength characteristics of an interface are to be determined. (2) Comparative studies show that the test results of direct box and ring shear tests are in good agreement. In the shear box test, the preparation of the specimen is easier. In the ring shear test, the stresses are more homogeneous, but the strains are not uniform. It...

Preparation of recompacted specimens A General requirements

(1) Disturbed soil may be recompacted to form test specimens in accordance with either of the following criteria. - Compaction using a specified compactive effort at a specified water content, - Achieving a specified dry density at a specified water content. (2) Clay soil that is to be recompacted to form test specimens should not be allowed to dry. If it is necessary to reduce the water content of the soil, this should be done by air drying. If it is necessary to add water in order to increase...

Preparation Of Specimen For Testing On Rock Material

(1) The ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterisation, Testing and Monitoring do not contain a specific requirement for preparation of rock specimens. However, most of the test methods contain a section on preparation of samples, with requirements on sample volume, sample quality, preparation method, specific dimensions and tolerance checks on dimensions and shape. (2) Examples of the common practice for preparing rock core specimens and determining dimensional and shape tolerances are given...

Preparation of undisturbed specimens

(1) The method of preparation of test specimens from undisturbed samples of soil depends on the type of sample and the type of specimen to be prepared. (2) The approximate mass of soil required for typical laboratory test specimens is given in Table A.4.4 The stated mass is sufficient for one test specimen with some allowance for wastage due to trimming. Table A.4.1 Mass of soil required for tests on disturbed samples Minimum mass of prepared test specimen Clay & silt Sands Gravelly soils D...

Quality of soil samples

(1) For element tests on clays, silts and organic soils, the quality of soil samples to be used depends on the property to be determined and the test procedures used. (2) For a fill or a stratum of sand or gravel, reconstituted specimens may in general be tested. Reconstituted specimens should have approximately the same composition, density and water content as in situ. Geotechnical problem Project (structure, geometry, loads) Gathering and evaluation Planning and execution of . field...

Recompacted sample larger than test specimen

(1) When preparing specimens for oedometer consolidation, direct shear or compressive strength tests, the soil should normally be compacted in the specified manner into a suitable mould that is of a larger size than the desired test specimen. The compacted sample should then be extruded from the mould and the test specimen should be prepared using the procedures described for undisturbed samples. (2) Specimens for permeability tests may be compacted directly into the mould or container in which...

Requirements specific to compaction tests

(1) The most frequently used compaction tests are the Standard and the Modified Compaction Tests. (2) Some highly permeable soils such as clean gravels, uniformly graded and coarse clean sands do not yield a well defined maximum density. Therefore an optimum water content might be difficult to obtain. (3) For stiff cohesive soils which need to be shredded, or chopped into small lumps, suggested methods are to shred the soil so that it can pass through a 5 mm test sieve, or to chop it into...

A Strength Testing Of Rock Material A General

(1) Examples of tests for determination of the strength of rock material are given in the documents listed in Annex B.15. A. 15.2 Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Deformability A.15.2.1 Test procedures (1) The test procedure should follow the example in Annex B.15.2 for uniaxial compressive strength testing and deformability testing. In addition the modifications prescribed in this prepresent standard should be used. (2) The test procedure described in ISRM contains two levels of testing -...

Swelling strain developed in unconfined rock specimen

(1) Examples of tests for swelling strain developed in an unconfined rock specimen are given in the documents listed in Annex B.14 Table A.14.1 Minimum number of rock specimens to be tested in one formation Swelling tests on rocks for projects of Geotechnical Category 2 Swelling pressure index under zero volume change 15 mm and or 10 times max particle size Specimen shall fit closely in the ring Swelling strain index for radially confined specimen with axial surcharqe 15 mm and or 10 times max...

Test procedures for all tests

(1) Examples of how to perform tests for the testing of soil dispersibility of soils are given in the documents listed in Annex B.5. (2) Dispersibility tests are not applicable to soils with clay content of less than 10 and with a plasticity index less than or equal to 4 . (3) The recommended minimum number of soil specimens to be tested for one soil stratum for projects of Geotechnical Category 2 is 2 for the pinhole test, 2 for the double hydrometer test, 2 for the soluble salts in pore water...

Annex B informative Bibliography

B.2 REQUIERMENTS FOR ALL LABORATORY TESTS B.4 PREPARATION OF SOIL SPECIMENS FOR TESTNG B.5 TEST FOR CLASSIFICATION, IDENTIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF SOILS B.5.2 Checklist for classification testing ETC5-N94.47, 1995 Laboratory method for determination of water content of soil, DIN-Beuth Verlag Berlin DIN 18 121 1998 Subsoil testing procedures and testing equipment, watercontent, determination by drying in oven NF P 94-050 1995 Soils Investigation and testing. Determination of moisture content....

B Compressibility Testing Of Soils B Test procedures

Recomendations of the ISSMGE for geotechnical laboratory testing. Incremental loading oedometer test on water-saturated soil, DIN-Beuth Verlag, Berlin BS 1377 1990 Methods for test for soils for civil engineering purposes Part 5 Compressibility, permeability and durability tests NS 8017 1991 Geotechnical testing - Laboratory methods - Determination of one-dimensional consolidation properties by oedometer testing - Method using incremental loading. ASTM D2435 1996 Test method for One-Dimensional...

Background to the Eurocode programme

(5) The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) initiated the work of establishing a set of harmonised technical rules for the design of building and civil engineering works which would initially serve as an alternative to the different rules in force in the various Member States and would ultimately replace them. These technical rules became known as the Structural Eurocodes. (6) In 1990, after consulting their respective Member States, the CEC transferred work of further development,...

National foreword

This Draft for Development is the official English language version of ENV 1997-2 1999. This publication is not to be regarded as a British Standard. It is being issued in the Draft for Development series of publications and is of a provisional nature. It should be applied on this provisional basis so that information and experience of its practical application may be obtained. This document does not have a parallel British Standard and, therefore, it has been published for use in the United...

Objectives of the Eurocodes

(1) The structural Eurocodes comprise a group of standards for the structural and geotechnical design of buildings and civil engineering works. (2) They are intended to serve as reference documents for the following purposes (a) As a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential requirements of the Construction Products Directive (CPD) (b) As a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for construction products. (3) They cover execution...

Requirements for all classification tests

(1) The results of soil classification tests should be, as far as possible, presented together with the soil profile on a plot summarising the soil description and all classification results. (2) If possible, the location of other laboratory tests (such as oedometer and triaxial tests) can be indicated on the same figure. (3) For all classification tests, special caution should be exercised with the choice of the temperature for oven-drying, as too high temperatures can have detrimental effects...

Requirements Quantity of soil

(1)P The soil specimen used for testing shall be sufficiently large to take account of - the largest size of particle present in significant quantity, - the natural features such as structure and soil fabric. (2)P Undisturbed samples shall be prepared under conditions of a high relative humidity. If preparation is interrupted, the specimen shall be protected from drying out. (3) Minimum masses of disturbed soil for classification tests and tests on re-compacted specimens are given in Annex A6....

Scope

(1)P Eurocode 7 applies to the geotechnical aspects of the design of buildings and civil engineering works. It is subdivided into various separate parts, (see 1.1.2). (2)P Eurocode 7 is concerned with the requirements for strength, stability, serviceability and durability of structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. (3)P Eurocode 7 shall be used in conjunction with ENV 1991-1 Basis of Design of Eurocode 1 Basis of Design and Actions on...

Table A Checklist for soil classification tests

Co-ordinate testing programme with other classification tests Standard oven-drying method not appropriate for halloysite, montmorillonite, gypsum, organic soils precautions may be needed Report presence of halloysite, montmorillonite, gypsum, organic soils For coarse soils, correction of measured water content may be needed Correction needed for saline soils Test method needs to be selected Check sampling and handling methods used For large earthwork projects, method may need to be adapted, or...

Table A Checklist for strength index tests on clayey soils

Tests provide approximate index of shear strength There is a large uncertainty in the measurements Use results cautiously for non-homogeneous and jointed slickensided soils All results are affected by the applied testing rate Test repeatability needs to be checked Test provides in addition a measure of sensitivity and remoulded shear strength Check mode of rotation (hand-operated vs motorised) Tests can be performed on extruded samples or in sampling tube Test specimen should be stripped of...

Table A Minimum number of soil specimens to be tested for one soil stratum Direct shear tests for projects of

(one recommended test means set of 3 individual tests) Variability in strength envelope Coefficient of correlation on regression curve Coefficient of correlation < 0,95 0,95 < Coefficient of correlation < 0,98 Coefficient of correlation > 0,98 *A single test and classification tests are sufficient to verify compatibility with comparable experience

Table A Minimum number of soil specimens to be tested for one soil stratum Incremental oedometer test for projects of

Variability in oedometer modulus ed in relevant stress range Range of values of oec > 50 20 < Range of values of oed < 50 Range of values of oec < 20 *One oedometer test and classification test are sufficient to verify compatibility with comparable knowledge A.7.3 Evaluation of compressibility characteristics A.7.3 Evaluation of compressibility characteristics (1) There are four widely used methods to determine the compressibility of a soil - back-calculations of measured settlements, -...

Table A Minimum number of soil specimens to be tested for one soil stratum Permeability tests for projects of

Measured coefficient of permeability A *A single test and classification tests are sufficient to verify compatibility with existing knowledge. (2) In Table A.11.1, a specification of only one test represents a verification of the existing knowledge. If the new test results do not agree with the existing data, additional tests should be run.

Table A Minimum number of soil specimens to be tested for one soil stratum Triaxial compression tests for projects of

(one recommended test means set of 3 individual tests) Tests to determine effective friction angle Tests to determine effective friction angle Variability in strength envelope Coefficient of correlation ron regression curve Tests to determine undrained shear strength Variability in undrained shear strength (for same consolidation stress) 1,25 < Ratio max min value < 2 A.9.2 Consolidated box and ring direct shear tests A.9.2 Consolidated box and ring direct shear tests

Calibration and checking of test equipment

(1) Specifications for test equipment given in standards normally include permissible manufacturing tolerances on critical dimensions (such as linear measurement mass). Working tolerances normally make allowance for changes in these dimensions as a result of wear in use. Unless stated otherwise, the maximum permissible working tolerances are twice the specified manufacturing tolerances. When the variation from a specified dimension exceeds this value, the equipment is no longer deemed to comply...

Requirements specific to California Bearing Ratio CBR test

(1) In situ tests may be carried out, but the laboratory test is the definitive procedure. (2) Tests may be carried out on either undisturbed or recompacted material. (3) The moisture content of the soil should be chosen to represent the design conditions for which the test results are required. (4) The CBR test should be carried out on material passing the 20 mm test sieve. If the soil contains particles retained on the 20 mm sieve, these particles should be removed and weighed before...

Direct shear test A Test procedures

1 The example listed in Annex B.15 should be followed. Some amendments have been introduced based on the recommendations of the SPRINT Rpt 216 project Quality Assurance in Geotechnical Testing. 2 The following amendments should be made to the ISRM procedure - The testing machine should have a travel greater than the amount of dilatation or consolidation expected, and should be able of maintaining normal load to within 2 of a selected value throughout the test. Dilation should be measured...

A General A Scope

1 This informative annex provides additional information for most of the aspects treated in the main text. 2 A.2 presents details on the requirements applicable to all laboratory tests. 3 In Annex B a bibliography is presented giving a list of standards that give examples of each laboratory test. The following list gives an overview of the subsection numbers and the tests treated in this annex. Annex A and Annex B have the same numeration system as the main text A.4 Preparation of soil...