Acknowledgements

This book would not have been possible without the successful completion of Eurocode 7 - Part 1. Those involved in this process included the project team for converting ENV 1997-1 into EN 1997-1 the working group for converting ENV 1997-1 into EN 1997-1 the project team for ENV 1997-1 (1994) the chairman and members of the ad hoc group of the European Commission, who in 1978 drafted the first model code for Eurocode 7. The important contributions of the following in the development of Eurocode...

Aims and objectives of this guide

The principal aim of this guide is to provide guidance on the use and interpretation of EN 1997-1. Eurocode 7 assumes that the user has an adequate knowledge and understanding of soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering. The reader of this guide is also expected to be a geotechnical engineer or to be familiar with conventional geotechnical design. Throughout this guide emphasis is placed on everyday practice, avoiding complicated geotechnical design cases, in order to ease the understanding...

Application of informative annexes

The National Annex may give the decision of a particular country about the application of the informative annexes of EN 1997-1 in that country. To do that, the National Annex must state, depending on the case, if the informative annex 'X' shall be regarded as normative at the national level the informative annex 'X' shall not be used at the national level. If the National Annex is silent on the use of an informative annex, it remains part of the standard. If some guidance on the same subject as...

Assumptions

Clause 1.3(2) The assumptions on which the provisions of EN 1997-1 are based, and with which the users of the code must strive to comply, are that (1) data required for design are collected, recorded and interpreted by appropriately qualified personnel (2) structures are designed by appropriately qualified and experienced personnel (3) adequate continuity and communication exist between the personnel involved in data-collection, design and construction (4) adequate supervision and quality...

Definitions

Definitions common to all Euroeodes Clause 1.5.1(1) Much of the limit state design terminology is defined in EN 1.990 (see also the companion title to this guide, the Designer's Guide to EN 1990, Eurocode Basis of Structural Design) and is not repeated in Eurocode 7. In fact, repetition of any kind is avoided as far as possible. Therefore, users of Eurocode 7 are advised to have EN 1990 available. It is important to note that in all the Euroeodes an 'action' is defined as a load or an...

Design requirements

EN 1990 defines limit states as 'states beyond which the structure no longer fulfils the Clause 2.1 (l)P relevant design criteria'. The aim of limit state design is to check that no limit state is exceeded when the relevant design values of actions, of material or product resistance properties and of geometrical properties are used in appropriate calculation models. I n order to simplify the design procedures, two fundamentally different types of limit state are generally recognized, each of...

Durability

Durability is the ability of the structure to remain fit for use during its design life, given Clause 2.3(1 )P appropriate maintenance. For geotechnical structures, maintenance is often difficult or impossible. I n this case, the design should take into account the degradation of materials over time due to any aggressiveness of the environment (ground, groundwater chemistry) by providing adequately resistant materials or protection for them. 2.2. Flow chart for geotechnical categorization....

Eurocodes

Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design -General rules R Frank, C Bauduin, R Driscoll, M Kawadas, N Krebs Ovesen, T Orr and B Schuppener DESIGNERS' GUIDE TO EN 1997-1 EUROCODE 7 GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN - Designers' Guide to EN 1990. Eurocode Basis of Structural Design. H. Gulvanessian, J.-A.Calgaro and M. Holicky. ISBN 0 7277 301 I 8 Designers' Guide to EN 1994-1-1. Eurocode 4 Design of Steel and Composite Structures. Part I.I General Rules and Rules for Buildings. R. P. Johnson and D. Anderson. ISBN 0 7277...

Foreword

The Foreword to EN 1997-1, Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design, Part 1 General Rules, consists mainly of clauses which are common to all the parts of all the Eurocodes, i.e. clauses on the background to the Eurocode programme 8 the Eurocode programme itself 9 the status and field of application of the Eurocodes 8 national standards implementing the Eurocodes 8 links between Eurocodes and harmonized technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) for products. It also includes two short clauses on additional...

Thomas Telford

Published by Thomas Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD URL http www.thomastelford.com Distributors for Thomas Telford books are USA ASCE Press, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400 Japan Maruzen Co. Ltd, Book Department, 3-10 Nihonbashi 2-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103 Australia DA Books and Journals, 648 Whitehorse Road, Mitcham 3132, Victoria Structural Eurocodes offer the opportunity of harmonized design standards for the European construction market...

Scope

EN 1997-1 gives the general principles and requirements, as well as the general application rules, relevant to the geotechnical aspects of the design of buildings and civil engineering works. It has to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, Eurocode Basis of Structural Design, which is the head document in the Eurocode suite and thus establishes, for all the structural Eurocodes, the principles and requirements for safety, serviceability and durability of structures it further describes the basis...

Info

B National Foreword c EN Title Page d EN text e EN Annex(es) f National Annex mmmmmmmmmmmmmrnrnrnm Fig. I. National standard implementing a Eurocode country specific data (geographical, climatic, etc.), e.g. a snow map, the procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode. decisions on the application of informative annexes, reference to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user in applying the Eurocode. It is the responsibility of each national...

Layout of this guide

FN 1997-1 has a Foreword and 12 sections together with nine annexes this guide has the same structure, with the chapters corresponding to the sections in the code. Annex A of EN 1997-1 gives the partial factors and their recommended values for checking ultimate limit states in persistent and transient situations. All the other annexes of EN 1997-1 relate to a specific section, and are thus dealt with in the corresponding chapters of this guide. Each chapter of the guide follows the order of its...

Na

Conversion to EN in progress CEN enquiry stage CEN enquiry stage Working groups in progress Table 1.2. Work programme of CEN TC 341 on geotechnical investigation and testing Drilling and Sampling Methods, and Groundwater Measurements Cone and Piezocone Penetration Tests Part I Electrical Cone and Piezocone Part 2 Mechanical Cone Dynamic Probing and Standard Penetration Test Borehole Expansion Tests M nard Pressuremeter Flexible Dilatometer Self-boring Pressuremeter Borehole Jack Full...

National implementation of Eurocode

The determination of the levels of safety for buildings and civil engineering works and parts thereof, including aspects of durability and economy, is, and remains, within the competence of the member states of CEN. Possible differences in geographical, geological or climatic conditions, or in ways of life, as well as different levels of protection that may prevail at national, regional or local level, have been taken into account by providing choices in the EN Eurocodes for identified values,...

The content of Eurocode

Part 1, General Rules, devoted to the general rules of geotechnical design (or ground engineering, where ground can be any soil or rock). This part is the subject of this guide. Part 2, Ground Investigation and Testing, concerned with the use of field investigations and laboratory testing for geotechnical design. This part is in preparation. EN 1997-1 describes the general principles and requirements for geotechnical design, primarily in order to ensure safety (strength and stability),...

The Eurocode programme

The complete set of structural Eurocodes will comprise the following codes, each generally consisting of a number of parts, which are in different stages of development EN 1990 Eurocode Basis of structural design EN 1991 Eurocode 1 Actions on Structures EN 1992 Eurocode 2 Design of Concrete Structures EN 1993 Eurocode 3 Design of Steel Structures EN 1994 Eurocode 4 Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures EN 1995 Eurocode 5 Design of Timber Structures EN 1996 Eurocode 6 Design of...

The schedule

The most important steps in the introduction of EN 1997-1 are summarized in the following paragraphs. After the formal vote and ratification, the Date of Availability (DAV) of the approved European standard is fixed by CEN as the date, a number of months after the formal vote, when the final edited official version of the code text is published by CEN and sent to the national standards bodies (NSBs). The translation of EN 1997-1 into the official CEN languages maybe started, at the latest, when...

Symbols

Many symbols used in limit state design are defined in EN 1990 and are not repeated in Eurocode 7. All the symbols unique to Eurocode 7 are listed in clause 1.6(1). They are in accordance Clause 1.6(1) with ISO 3898, as well as with the recommendations of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMFE, 1981). Characteristic values of parameters are identified by the subscript 'k', while design values are identified by the subscript'd'. The subscript 'dst'...

Geotechnical design by calculation General

EN 1990 defines the actions that have to be considered in the calculations. The values of structural actions must be taken from EN 1991, whereas EN 1997-1 deals with Design by calculation is the most commonly applied procedure for checking the avoidance of limit states. It is therefore the main subject of EN 1997-1. The limit state design procedure involves establishing actions, which may be either imposed loads or imposed displacements establishing ground properties and properties of the...

The three Design Approaches

When the work on Eurocode 7 began in 1981, a decision had already been taken by those experts involved in drafting the material Eurocodes, Eurocodes 2 to 6, on the design of concrete, steel, timber and masonry structures, to base these codes on the limit state design format with the use of partial factors. For the experts responsible for drafting Eurocode 7, this presented quite a new way of thinking, since almost no experience with these concepts had been gained in the majority of the...

The development of Eurocode

Before World War II, codes of practice for structural and foundation engineering were used only in a small number of countries. These codes were aimed at describing good engineering practice and were not very systematic in their approach to design. The postwar boom in the construction industry led to a widespread rethinking of the whole civil engineering design process. In the early 1950s, for example, the Institution of Structural Engineers (1955) in the UK set up a committee to report on...

Packages of EN Eurocode parts

Several parts of different Eurocodes are normally needed for the design of a specific structure. Therefore, the concept of packages of EN Eurocode parts has been introduced. The purpose of defining packages, by grouping parts of EN Eurocodes, is to enable a common Date of Withdrawal (DoW) for all of the relevant parts of national standards that are needed for a particular design. Thus, conflicting national standards must be withdrawn by the end of the Coexistence Period, when all of the EN...

Design situations

The geotechnical design must be checked for the relevant 'design situations'. These should be selected so as to encompass all conditions which are reasonably foreseeable as likely to occur during the construction and use of the structure. The different design situations for ultimate and serviceability limit states are defined in EN 1990, and discussed in the Designers' Guide to EN 1990 pp. 35-36 . EN 1997-1 deals with ultimate limit states in persistent and transient situations and in...