Info

__ when, for Group 2b masonry units, there is a longitudinal mortar joint through all or part of the length of the masonry (see figures 5.1(b), 5.3 and 5.4) fb is the normalized compressive strength of the masonry units in N mm2 , as described in 3.1.2.1, in the direction of the applied action effect fm is the specified compressive strength of the general purpose mortar in N mm2. (2) When Group 2 aggregate concrete units are used with the vertical cavities filled completely with insitu...

Minimum Length Of Stiffening Wall

Figure 4.2 Graph showing values of against slendemess ratio for different eccentricities. CEN ENV*111b-l-l IS 3404SA1 0017814 71A (1) Walls may be considered as stiffened at a vertical edge if - cracking between the wall and its stiffening wall is not expected i.e. both walls are made of materials with approximately similar deformation behaviour, are approximately evenly loaded, are erected simultaneously and bonded together and differential movement beween the walls, for example, due to...

P Qk

- considering all unfavourable variable actions (6)P Values of yM shall be taken as 11,0 I, except where stated otherwise in particular clauses. CEN ENV*nib-l-l 15 34045 1 0017 L.2 10 (1)P To ensure an adequately durable structure, the following inter-related factors shall be considered - the required performance criteria - the expected environmental conditions - the composition, properties and performance of the materials - the shape of members, and the structural detailing - the quality of...

GkJ Yq Qk EYQVti Qki

Note This combination rule is an amalgamation of two separate load combinations - Accidental design situations (if not specified differently elsewhere) is the characteristic values of permanent actions is the characteristic value of one of the variable actions is the characteristic values of the other variable actions is the design value ( specified value) of the accidental action is the partial safety factor for permanent actions is as yGj but for accidental design situations is the partial...

K

Constant concerned with the characteristic compressive strength of masonry CEN ENV*nib-l-l < 55 340456 DD17flMb TbS k ratio of slab stiffness to wall stiffness L length of a panel between supports or between a support and a free edge Lef effective length of a wall clear span of floor (also 3 and 4) c length of wall in compression M mortar compressive strength grade M bending moment at the top (M,) or bottom (M2) of a wall due to load eccentricity M,,, bending moment within the middle fifth of...

L

When h < 3,5 L, with p2 from (i), (ii) or (iii) whichever is appropriate, or where L is the distance of the free edge from the centre of the stiffening wall. Note Values for p3are shown in graphical form in Annex B. (v) For walls restrained at the top and bottom and stiffened on two vertical edges 1

L E

Figure 4.13 Composite lintel forming a deep beam. 4.7.4 Reinforced masoniy members under the serviceability limit state 4.7.4.1 General (1)P Reinforced masonry members shall not crack unacceptably or deflect excessively under CEN ENV*mb-l-l IS 34D45 1 DD171S3 341 serviceability loading conditions. 4.7.4.2 Deflection (1) Where reinforced masonry members are sized so as to be within the limiting dimensions given in 4.7.1.3, it may normally be assumed that the lateral deflection of a wall and the...

M

Era is the eccentricity due to loads M,,, is the greatest moment within the middle one fifth of the height of the wall resulting from the moments at the top and bottom of the wall (see figure 4.1) Nra is the design vertical load within the middle one fifth of the height of the wall e is the eccentricity at mid-height resulting from horizontal loads (for example, wind) hef is the effective height, obtained from 4.4.4 for the appropriate restraint or stiffening condition tef is the effective...

Masonry units

(1)P Masonry unit A preformed component, intended for use in masonry construction. (2)P Groups 1, 2a, 2b and 3 masonry units Group designations for masonry units, according to the percentage size and orientation of holes in the units when laid. (3)P Bed face The top or bottom surface of a masonry unit when laid as intended. (4)P Frog A depression, formed during manufacture, in one or both bed faces of a masonry unit. (5)P Hole A formed void which may or may not pass completely through a masonry...

Materials

(1)P Masonry units shall be of the following types - Clay units in accordance with EN 771-1. - Calcium silicate units in accordance with EN 771-2. - Aggregate concrete units (dense and lightweight aggregate) in accordance with EN 771-3. - Autoclaved aerated concrete units in accordance with EN 771-4. - Manufactured stone units in accordance with EN 771-5. - Dimensioned natural stone units in accordance with EN 771-6. (2)P Masonry units shall be classified in terms of manufacturing control as...

Ra

F k is the characteristic strength of the reinforcement, obtained from 3.4.2 ys is the partial safety factor for steel, obtained from 2.3.3.2 z is the lever arm which may be taken from 4.7.3.1. N ENV*111t-l-l 15 3404S61 0017121 57b Figure 4.12 Representation of a deep beam. Figure 4.12 Representation of a deep beam. (5) To resist cracking, additional nominal reinforcement should be provided in the bed joints above the main reinforcement, to a height of 0,5 It or 0,5d, whichever is the lesser,...

They cover execution and control only to the extent that it is necessary to indicate the quality of the construction

(3) Until the necessary set of harmonized technical specifications for products and for the methods for testing their performance are available, some of the Structural Eurocodes cover some of these aspects in informative annexes. Background of the Euro code programme (4) The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) initiated the work of establishing a set of harmonized technical rules for the design of building and civil engineering works which would initially serve as an alternative to the...

V

Figure 4.4 Walls subjected to concentrated load. 4.4.9 Stresses due to restraints (1)P Allowance shall be made for the variable properties of materials to avoid overstressing or damage where they are inter-connected. Note The rigid connection of materials with different deformation behaviour may cause considerable stresses due to shrinkage, creep and changes in temperature (see 3.8.4), and these may lead to redistribution of design stresses and damage to the masonry. Similar effects may be...

W

Wsd is the design horizontal action from wind, per unit area, to be transferred CEN Eimmt-l-l IS 34045A1 IVICH T71 F, is the characteristic compressive or tensile resistance of a wall tie, as appropriate to the design condition, determined by tests in accordance with EN 846-5 or EN 846-6 yM is the partial safety factor for wall ties, from 2.3.3.2. (3) The horizontal action from the wind acting on the wall should be calculated in accordance with ENV 1991. For cavity walls, the design horizontal...

X

Figure 4.5 Flange widths that can be assumed for shear walls. (8)P Where the plan arrangement of the shear walls is asymmetric, or for any other reason the horizontal force is eccentric to the overall stiffness centre of the structure, account shall be taken of the effect of the consequent rotation of the system on the individual walls (torsional effects). See 4.1.1(4) for the general requirements for a properly braced structure. (9) If the floors are not sufficiently rigid when considered as...

P Qk oQk

Where the notation is defined in 2.3.2.2(2). (3)P Where simplified compliance rules are given in the relevant clauses dealing with serviceability limit states, detailed calculations using combinations of actions are not required. (4) Where the design considers compliance of serviceability limit states by detailed calculations, simplified expressions as given in paragraph (5) below, may be used for building structures. (5) For building structures the rare combination may be simplified to the...

[m

Figure 6.1 Maximum vertical deviations. (1)P All work shall be constructed in accordance with the specified details within permissible deviations. (2)P All work shall be executed by appropriately skilled and experienced personnel. (3) Appropriately qualified and experienced personnel should be employed by the contractor for the supervision of the work. (4) The specification should include requirements for workmanship no less onerous than the recommendations in this ENV 1996-1-1. (5) The level...

Ics

Descriptors buildings, construction, masonry work, building codes, computation, generalities Eurocode 6 Design of masonry structures - Part 1-1 General rules for buildings - Rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry Eurocode 6 Calcul des ouvrages en ma onnerie - Partie 1-1 R gles g n rales - R gles pour la ma onnerie arm e et non arm e Eurocode 6 Bemessung und Konstruktion von Hauerwerksbauten - Teil 1-1 Allgemeine Regeln - Regeln f r bewertes und bewertes Mauerwerk This European...

Ed

Fbot for high-bond carbon steel and stainless steel bars (N mm2) Table 3.7 Characteristic anchorage bond strength of reinforcement in mortar or concrete not confined within masonry units. Table 3.7 Characteristic anchorage bond strength of reinforcement in mortar or concrete not confined within masonry units.

En

(1)P Masonry units shall be sufficiently durable to resist local exposure conditions for the intended life of the building. Note Guidance on design and construction to provide adequate durability is given in Sections 5 and 6 of this ENV 1996-1-1 and in ENV 1996-2. (1)P Factory made and pre-batched mortars shall be in accordance with EN 998-2. Site mixed mortar shall be in accordance with the particular clauses in 6.3.2. Pre-mixed sand lime, used for site mixed mortar, shall be in accordance...

H

A, is the distance from the end of the wall to the nearer edge of the bearing area (see figure 4.4) H is the height of the wall to the level of the load Ab is the bearing area, not taken to be greater than 0,45 Aef Aef is the effective area of the wall Lef t (see figure 4.4) Lef is the effective length as determined at the mid height of the wall or pier (see figure 4.4) t is the thickness of the wall, taking into account the depth of recesses in joints greater than 5mm. Note Values for the...

Basis of design

(1)P A structure shall be designed and constructed in such a way that - with acceptable probability, it will remain fit for the use for which it is required, having due regard to its intended life and its cost, and - with appropriate degrees of reliability, it will sustain all actions and influences likely to occur during execution and use and have adequate durability in relation to maintenance costs. (2)P A structure shall be designed in such a way that it will not be damaged by events like...

Din

Burggrafenstrasse 6 10772 Berlin Germany or to your national standards organization. National Application Documents (NAD's) (13) In view of the responsibilities of authorities in member countries for safety, health and other matters covered by the essential requirements of the Construction Products Directive (CPD), certain safety elements in this ENV 1996-1-1 have been assigned indicative values which are identified by f ( boxed values). The authorities in each member country are expected to...

Reinforcement

(1)P Reinforcing steel Steel reinforcement for use in masonry. (2)P Bed joint reinforcement Steel reinforcement that is prefabricated for building into a bed joint. Note For the purposes of this Eurocode, reference is made to EN 845-3, Specification for ancillary components for masonry. Part 3. Bed joint reinforcement. (3)P Prestressing steel Steel wires, bars or strands for use in masonry. (1)P Damp proof course A layer of sheeting, masonry units or other material used in masonry to resist the...