## Development of the Modern Dams

Unlike past periods in history, the modern dam is designed using specific principles. The largest change in the design of a modern dam compared to the earlier dams, has been the formation of engineering schools. This changed the individualistic craftsmanship of engineering into a profession based on scientific principles. Engineers were subdivided into specific disciplines, increasing the advancements of both dam principles and construction methods. The modern embankment dam has improved...

## F Kj Kj Kjjj KC

Several functional forms of equation 5.1 have been proposed in the literature. In LEFM models, a sudden release of stress on the surface is assumed with the extension of the crack. Most investigators adopt the discrete crack propagation finite element model (DCPM) with the LEFM constitutive models. Techniques to apply the LEFM criteria in smeared crack propagation finite element model have also been reported in the literature. Pekau et al. (1991) have proposed a numerical procedure to apply the...

## Flood Control Dams

Since large number of natural fatalities, injuries and damage are caused by rapid flooding it is important to have flood control methods. Dams have been used for flood control since the first civilizations were formed. The Sadd-elKafara dam of Egypt was built around 2600 BC, about the same time as the beginning of the Pyramids. It stands 14m high and has a 113m crest. the lack of knowledge in hydrology and soil mechanics lead to the dam being over, designed. It had three distinct sections the...

## M i d[CoM

Since Y is a quadratic function of strain, it is positive and, thus, d is always increasing as shown in equation 5.9. This is a characterization of the irreversibility of damage. Different hypothesis have been proposed for isotropic damage model. The basic assumption in behaviour of the damaged and equivalent undamaged element will results in different model. Among several models, special attention will be given to the two models. They are mainly based on two concepts of the modelling. In the...

## Reservoir Foundation Boundary Condition

If there is no absorption or penetration of water into the reservoir bottom, the same dam-reservoir boundary condition that was obtained previously, can be used for reservoir-foundation boundary. In case of reservoir with sediment at the bottom, we can account it in a very simplified manner. The boundary condition at the reservoir bottom relates the hydrodynamic pressure to the sum of the normal acceleration and acceleration due to interaction between impounded water and the reservoir bottom...

## Safety Of Dams And Reservoirs

There are Several types of reservoirs as defined by their locations. The common type is a reservoir behind a dam in a valley. Increasing use is being made of tidal-storage reservoir for power generation along coast lines and excavated reservoirs for water storage for municipal or other use. In the latter type the excavated material commonly is employed to construct an embankment on one or all sides of the reservoir. Reservoirs and their associated dams serve many purposes including electric...

## Surveillance

External and internal examination of dams are required during their life time. Long term surveillance program can ensure dams owner of their safe operation. Long term surveillance requires instrument installation and monitoring to assess the performance of structures with respect to design parameters. Design of monitoring installations is to measure displacement, settlement, strain, stress, piezometric pressures, seepage, uplift, flow velocity and water levels, and alarm systems as required for...

## Concrete Gravity and Gravity Arch Dams

A concrete gravity dam has a cross-section such that, with a flat bottom, the dam is free-standing that is, the dam has a center of gravity low enough that the dam will not topple if unsupported at the abutments. Gravity dams require maximum amounts of concrete for their construction as compared with other types of concrete dams, and resist dislocation by the hydrostatic pressure of reservoir water by sheer weight. Concrete gravity dams have been constructed up to 285 m (950 ft)high. Properly...

## Embankment Dams

A broad spectrum of natural and fabricated materials have been used in the construction of embankment dams. Embankment dams are made by building an embankment of gravel, sand, and clay across a river. To prevent leakage, often a core, or inner wall, of concrete or other watertight materials is used. In a rolled-fill dam, earth is hauled by vehicles onto the dam and rolled tight with heavy machinery. In the hydraulic fill dam, earth is carried to the dam by water in pipes or flumes and also...

## The Equation of the Motion

The continuity equation and the linear momentum equation was developed for finite systems and their were related to control volume. The equations give an average values of quantities or only components of resultant forces. They don't give any detail information of the flow everywhere inside the control volume. Here, we are trying to find out differential equations valid at any point of fluid. Writing continuity equation in the form of differential equation, we consider an infinitesimal control...

## Reynolds Transport Equation

Consider N as properties of a substance whose measure depends on the amount of the substance presented in a system. An arbitrary flow field of v v x, y, z, t is observed from some reference xyz. We consider a system of fluid with finite mass at time t and t At figure 2.3 . The streamlines correspond to those at time t. The control volume is considered with system at time t and is fixed. The distribution of N per unit mass will be given as n, such that N HI npdV with dV representing an element...

## [MU [CU [KU f [MUg

In a MDF sytem, a system is discretized into its degrees of freedom. The number of degrees of freedom depend on the number of elements and the degree of freedom for each element. Usually in the case of concrete gravity dams isoparametric plane stress or plane strain are used. These types of elements are used for two dimensional problems. In some cases triangular elements may be used. In both plane stress or plane strain the displacement field is given by the u and v in directions of cartisian x...

## Concrete Arch and Dome Dams

The ultimate complexity of design and analysis of stresses is attained in arch and dome dams. These dams are thin, curved structures commonly containing reinforcing, either steel rods or prestressed steel cables. Volume requirements for aggregate for manufacture of concrete are much less than in gravity and gravity-arch dams, but the competency of bedrock in foundations and abutment to sustain or resist loads must be of a high order. Arch dams usually are built in narrow, deep gorges in...