## Development of the Modern Dams

Unlike past periods in history, the modern dam is designed using specific principles. The largest change in the design of a modern dam compared to the earlier dams, has been the formation of engineering schools. This changed the individualistic craftsmanship of engineering into a profession based on scientific principles. Engineers were subdivided into specific disciplines, increasing the advancements of both dam principles and construction methods. The modern embankment dam has improved...

## Ecologicalenvironmental Consideration Of Dam Operation

The following observations are generalized from the literature at large. Whether any particular concern applies to any particular dam is a function of a suite of factors that might include the dam's type (e.g. concrete or earth), its purpose (e.g. hydrologic regulation, hydroelectric generation, tailings impoundment), its size, location and operating protocol (e.g. timing of drawdowns, epilim-netic versus hypolimnetic draw, peaking versus base load generation, etc.). Finally, The observations...

## Famous Dams Of The World

Rogun and Nurek, in Tajikistan, are among the world's highest dams. They rise to a height of more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) each. Some of the world's other major dams are Grande Dixence and Mauvoisin, in Switzerland Chicoasen, in Mexico Inguri, in Georgia Sayano-Shushensk, in Russia Mica, in Canada and Guavio, in Colombia. Three of the foreign dams that are constructed of the largest volume of materials are Tarbela, in Pakistan Lower Usuma, in Nigeria and Guri, in Venezuela. Dams that form...

## Ft [M U

The mass matrix M is a diagonal matrix and in general it can be a nondiagonal symmetric matrix. The forces due to elasticity can be written as where K is the stiffness matrix. A detailed description of the stiffness matrix can be found in finite element books. The damping matrix can be written as

## Linear Momentum Equation

If we take linear momentum as parameters N which is used as a general term (vector and scalar) in the Reynold transport equation, we have N P mv. The term n in this case would become momentum per unit mass, or simply v, then, P JJJ v(pdV). Then the Reynold transport equation can be written as followings The equation of linear momentum is a vector equation and can be divided into its three components. In above equation, F if the resultant of the all external forces acting on the system and v the...

## M i d[CoM

Since Y is a quadratic function of strain, it is positive and, thus, d is always increasing as shown in equation 5.9. This is a characterization of the irreversibility of damage. Different hypothesis have been proposed for isotropic damage model. The basic assumption in behaviour of the damaged and equivalent undamaged element will results in different model. Among several models, special attention will be given to the two models. They are mainly based on two concepts of the modelling. In the...

## Reservoir Farend Truncated Boundary Condition

The truncated boundary for the finite element and boundary element modeling of the infinite reservoir was worked by so many researchers. Sommerfeld boundary condition is the most common one that is based on the assumption that at long distance from the dam face, water wave can be considered as plane wave. A plane wave can be represented by an equation of the form in which n is the normal at the truncation boundary. This represents well-known Sommerfeld radiation condition. It introduces a...

## Reservoir Foundation Boundary Condition

If there is no absorption or penetration of water into the reservoir bottom, the same dam-reservoir boundary condition that was obtained previously, can be used for reservoir-foundation boundary. In case of reservoir with sediment at the bottom, we can account it in a very simplified manner. The boundary condition at the reservoir bottom relates the hydrodynamic pressure to the sum of the normal acceleration and acceleration due to interaction between impounded water and the reservoir bottom...

## Safety Of Dams And Reservoirs

There are Several types of reservoirs as defined by their locations. The common type is a reservoir behind a dam in a valley. Increasing use is being made of tidal-storage reservoir for power generation along coast lines and excavated reservoirs for water storage for municipal or other use. In the latter type the excavated material commonly is employed to construct an embankment on one or all sides of the reservoir. Reservoirs and their associated dams serve many purposes including electric...

## Solution Of The Reservoir Equation

Westergard's classic work (1933) on the hydrodynamic water pressure on dams during the earthquake started a new area for the researcher in this field. Westergaard's solution to wave equation for rigid dams during earthquakes was obtained based on the assumptions of dam with rectangular reservoir subjected to horizontal earthquake. In the solution, the reservoir extended to infinity in the upstream direction and the effect of surface wave was neglected. The system was subjected to the horizontal...

## The Moslem World

Arabs quickly developed their country within one century after the impact of new Islamic religious founded by prophet Mohammed. Several irrigation dams around the new power centres of Mecca and Madina, were built. The following is a summary of 7th and 8thcentury dams in central Arabia. Table 1.4 Summary of 7th and 8th century dams in central Arabia All of these dams were of the gravity type. They all have two outer walls of dry masonry and an earth or rubble core in between. The walls of some...

## Embankment Dams

A broad spectrum of natural and fabricated materials have been used in the construction of embankment dams. Embankment dams are made by building an embankment of gravel, sand, and clay across a river. To prevent leakage, often a core, or inner wall, of concrete or other watertight materials is used. In a rolled-fill dam, earth is hauled by vehicles onto the dam and rolled tight with heavy machinery. In the hydraulic fill dam, earth is carried to the dam by water in pipes or flumes and also...

## The Equation of the Motion

The continuity equation and the linear momentum equation was developed for finite systems and their were related to control volume. The equations give an average values of quantities or only components of resultant forces. They don't give any detail information of the flow everywhere inside the control volume. Here, we are trying to find out differential equations valid at any point of fluid. Writing continuity equation in the form of differential equation, we consider an infinitesimal control...

## Reynolds Transport Equation

Consider N as properties of a substance whose measure depends on the amount of the substance presented in a system. An arbitrary flow field of v v x, y, z, t is observed from some reference xyz. We consider a system of fluid with finite mass at time t and t At figure 2.3 . The streamlines correspond to those at time t. The control volume is considered with system at time t and is fixed. The distribution of N per unit mass will be given as n, such that N HI npdV with dV representing an element...

## [MU [CU [KU f [MUg

In a MDF sytem, a system is discretized into its degrees of freedom. The number of degrees of freedom depend on the number of elements and the degree of freedom for each element. Usually in the case of concrete gravity dams isoparametric plane stress or plane strain are used. These types of elements are used for two dimensional problems. In some cases triangular elements may be used. In both plane stress or plane strain the displacement field is given by the u and v in directions of cartisian x...

## Concrete Arch and Dome Dams

The ultimate complexity of design and analysis of stresses is attained in arch and dome dams. These dams are thin, curved structures commonly containing reinforcing, either steel rods or prestressed steel cables. Volume requirements for aggregate for manufacture of concrete are much less than in gravity and gravity-arch dams, but the competency of bedrock in foundations and abutment to sustain or resist loads must be of a high order. Arch dams usually are built in narrow, deep gorges in...