## Brief Study Of Nonlinear Parameters

Modelling the constitutive behaviour of concrete is the most important part of nonlinear seismic response study of the dams. Analytical models for two-dimensional fracture propagation studies are well developed now, but the constitutive behaviour of concrete is the most important part of nonlinear seismic response study of the dams. Analytical models for two-dimensional fracture propagation studies are well developed now, but the three-dimensional application of the fracture models is still in its infancy. Unlike the circumstance in arch dams, where the nonlinear joint behaviour in the arch direction could be a decisive factor in the stability of the structure , the structural response of gravity dams is mainly determined by gravity action. The concrete gravity dam monoliths, usually unkeyed or lightly grouted, are expected to vibrate independently under severe ground excitations. Hence, two-dimensional planestress idealizations seem to be appropriate for nonlinear seismic response study of concrete gravity dams.

A state-of-the-art review on the constitutive models for two-dimensional finite element crack propagation analysis of concrete gravity is presented in this part. Special emphasis is put on the applications of the models in seismic analyses of the dams and the limitations of past investigations are examined.

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