Ai rai

The above equation is a representative of a biaxial failure envelope. The principal stress a1, and the principal strain, £1, at the instance of softening initiation, are designated by a0, and £0, respectively [Figure 5.10-a].

Under dynamic loads, the pre-peak non-linearity decreases with increasing values for both at and £t [Figure 5.10-b]. The strain-rate effect on the material parameter U0 is considered through a dynamic magnification factor, DMFe, as follows:

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