Beavers

A mammal belonging to the order of rodents, or gnawing animals, the beaver has been recognized as a master engineer. By using teeth and paws, beavers construct dams, lodges, storehouses, and canals. The animal is also known for its aquatic life-style as well as for its beautiful fur.

The beaver has a thick body covered with a coat of long, reddish-brown outer hairs and soft, dense, brown underfur. This warm, waterproof coat allows the beaver to swim in icy water in the wintertime without discomfort. Most of the beaver's physical characteristics of the fur, toes, tail, ears, nose, and lips are so constructed that the animal is well equipped for life in the water as well as on land. The toes on the beaver's large hind feet are webbed for swimming. The second toe on each hind foot ends in a double claw with which the animal combs its fur. The front feet are small and handlike and are used for picking up and carrying various objects. The tail is shaped like a paddle, broad and flat, and is covered with scaly skin. The tail serves as a prop when the beaver sits upright and as a rudder and scull when it swims. As a danger signal to other beavers, the normally placid animal makes a loud noise by slapping its tail on the water's surface. The beaver's facial features also allow for its aquatic life-style. The short, thick head has small rounded ears and a nose which are equipped with valves that close when the animal swims underwater. A beaver may remain submerged for up to 15 minutes. The animal carries objects underwater in its mouth by closing loose lips behind prominent front teeth, thus keeping water out of its mouth. Like other rodents, the beaver has well-developed front teeth. These teeth have a very hard layer on the front surface and a softer backing. Since this softer part wears away quickly, it leaves the thin chisel edge of the front layer exposed. The animal's teeth are always growing to make up for wear. The beaver has a total of 20 teeth.

Beavers are social animals; they live in colonies and work together. The life span of the animal may be as long as 19 years. A beaver begins its life in a litter of from two to eight young, or kits. Four is the usual number. They are born in the spring, about four months after conception. A mother will sometimes raise not only her own offspring, but also the young of another female that has died. Newborn kits weigh from 8 to 24 ounces (225 to 680 grams) and are about 15 inches (38 centimeters) long, with tails that measure 3 1/2 inches (9 centimeters). Their eyes are open at birth. They are out learning to swim when they are only a month old, and they are weaned by six months. A family usually consists of a mature pair of beavers and two sets of offspring. A female first breeds when it is by their third summer the young beavers are mature and ready to mate. They usually mate for life. A mated pair locates a fairly deep, slow-moving stream. They dig a burrow into the bank, starting below the surface of the water and slanting upward to a small room above the high-water mark. This is only a temporary residence in which the first litter will be born in the spring. Not until the following autumn does the couple set about building their permanent home—the lodge. Beavers live most of their lives in or near water. They settle along banks of streams, rivers, and lakes bordered by timberland. Large beaver populations have been credited with reducing flooding because of the dams they build across streams. On the other hand, they may also cause the flooding of roads and woodlands because of the reservoirs of water that build up behind the dams. Constant flooding can also damage valuable timber and block routes of migrating salmon. The reservoirs created by the dams are places where the beavers feel secure. It is in these artificially created ponds that beavers build their lodges and storehouses. The adult beavers select a narrow, shallow site in the water as a place to build a dam. They gnaw down a number of aspen, birch, or willow saplings. These they drag to the site and bury in mud with the butt ends pointing upstream. Into this foundation the beavers fit and pile more saplings, adding mud and stones until a strong barrier is completed. This structure allows enough seepage or overflow to keep the water in the reservoir fresh. Beaver dams come in all shapes and sizes. Normally a family of beavers can build a dam 35 feet (10 meters) long in about a week. Some dams more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) long have been found, but these are the work of generations of beavers.

Beavers live in a structure called a lodge. The lodge is built in the riverbank or in the pond created by the dam. From a distance, the lodge resembles a heap of tree branches and mud. It consists of a platform of carefully interlaced branches held together by clay and dead leaves. When the platform has been built up a few inches above the water, the beavers fashion a dome-shaped roof over it. Before the coming of winter, the entire structure, which may enclose a room more than 5 feet (1.5 meters) high, must be plastered with mud. Entrances to the beaver lodge often open underwater, so that the animals may pass in and out below the winter ice. There are at least two, and up to five, such entrances. A steep and narrow entrance is used by the beavers for entry and exit. Another entrance is used for the transportation of wood for winter food. These underwater entrances help protect the beavers from attacks by predators which include, in North America, the wolverine, the lynx, and the wolf. Beavers move awkwardly on land; they prefer to swim. When they live in flat areas they sometimes build canals. These canals allow the beavers to more easily transport the logs that are too heavy to drag overland. A canal may measure more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) in length and from 2 to 3 feet (60 to 90 centimeters) in width.

When construction on dams, lodges, and canals is finished, the beavers gnaw whole groves of trees and sink the wood in the pond near their lodge. This collection forms the underwater winter "storehouse." Their diet consists primarily of fresh green bark and wood such as poplar, willow, and birch. In the summer they also eat water plants, berries, swampwood, and fruit. Beavers do most of their building and food gathering at night. After an autumn of toil, beavers spend the winter resting. They swim out of their warm, dry lodges only to pluck a twig or branch from the storehouse. Because the water in the pond is a meter deep or more, it does not freeze to the bottom and the beaver can swim under the ice in winter time to get sticks from the food pile accumulated the previous fall, return to the feeding chamber of the lodge and leisurely eat the food, all in a perfect safety from predators.

Beavers' dam is usually a high flat dam and having unwittingly created the lake which affords them safety and food. The dam is quite steep on the downstream side but slopes gently into the pond on the upstrean side. This result is obtained because the beaver adds material to the dam from the upstream side and, by doing so, unintentionally achieves a dam with the strongest possible configuration and therefore provides maximum security for the colony.

Although once plentiful throughout the wooded parts of the Northern Hemisphere, beavers had become an endangered species by the mid-19th century. They have been hunted for their fur, their tails, and their musk glands. Both sexes possess scent glands at the rear of the body that produce a liquid called castoreum, which is used in perfumes. It was also a popular medicine in the Middle Ages, apparently used to heal ailments ranging from headaches to dropsy. The healing ability of castoreum comes from its salicylic acid—a basic ingredient of aspirin—which the beaver acquires by eating willow bark. The beaver has in the past been hunted for its scaly tail, which was considered a culinary delicacy. Beaver flesh in general was highly esteemed during the Middle Ages. It is the quest for the beautiful pelt that has most drastically reduced the beaver population. The soft, thick underfur of the beaver, which is at its best in late winter and spring, has long been highly valued. During the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries, beaver skins, made into caps and capes, were a staple of the world's fur trade. In fact, much of the exploration of North America, beginning early in the 1600s and continuing through the early 19th century, was prompted by the search for beaver fur. At one time beaver pelts were a medium of exchange. Beaver populations have been diminishing for centuries, possibly because of various natural causes as well as trapping. Almost too late, conservation laws were passed throughout the world, and the beaver was saved and was resettled in some areas where it had once been common. The beaver population in Russia and in North America has recovered to the extent that bans on hunting imposed earlier in the 20th century have been slightly modified.

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