Damage evolution for concrete subjected to tensile strain

An element of volume of the material which can be representative of the global behaviour is now considered. This volume will be characterized by its length which provides a measure of the region over which the damage is smeared so that the global response is reproduced by this volume. This length, lch, is called characteristic length and it should be measured in the direction normal to a potential crack plane ( Figure 5.8-B).

To de fine the damage evolution of concrete, The principal strains are measured for an element to determine the state of the system. The initial threshold is the strain beyond which damage can occur and is given by:

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