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The term Cd(3, 3) in equation 5.16 represents the shear resistance of the damaged material. It can be written in a manner similar to that of the smeared crack approach, i.e., Cd(3, 3) = fiG in which fl is the shear retention factor that is given here as a function of damage scalars d1 and d2.

If d2 is neglected as it assumed in the smeared crack approach, P can be expressed as a function of strain in the principal direction. The constitutive law can be written as:

where the principal directions of damage are assumed to coincide with the principal stresses. Transforming to the global axes, the constitutive relation can be written as:

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