The first dams built by early man were low earth or rock structures designed to impound and divert water for agricultural use. Today's dams are a critical part of the nations infrastructure. They are vital for hydropower generation, drinking water, irrigation, navigation, recreation and flood control. Dams differ from other structure because of their size and their containment of water. Special attention must be taken to understand their behaviors.. The reservoir provides an extra effect of dynamic action into the dam response.

The ultimate fate of all dams and reservoirs, is deterioration and failure or filling by sedimentation. Every reservoir that impounds water behind a dam is a real or potential threat to those who live and work at the downstream side of the dam. In some locations, the effects of a sever earthquake may be dangerous to the integrity of the dam-reservoir structure and may tend to the destruction of the system. Modern technology combining the knowledge of construction and accurate design to reduce the risk that is inherent in dam and reservoir system. The capacity of the reservoir may vary depends on the shape of the valley and topography of the dam site. The more capacity of the reservoir, the more threat to the area in case of a failure.

In this chapter, we will establish reservoir's governing equation of the motion and associated boundary conditions of the dam-reservoir system.

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