List of Figures

1.1 Idealized section of embankment dams a) Rock-fill dam with symmetrical clay core b) Rock and gravel dam with reinforced concrete slab 12

1.2 Cross-sections of several arch dams 14

1.3 Cross-section of typical concrete gravity dam 15

1.4 Cross-section of a concrete buttress dam 16

2.1 Fluid point 51

2.2 a)Lagrangian viewpoint b)Eulerian viewpoint 52

2.3 Moving system 54

2.4 Volume element 59

2.5 Rectangular Parallelpiped element 61

2.6 Well-ordered parallel flow 64

2.7 Wave front movement and fluid movement 68

2.8 Moving pressure disturbance in a motionless fluid and fixed wave in a moving fluid 69

2.9 Details of boundary layers 72

2.10 Displacement thickness in boundary layer 73

2.11 Three types of fluid motion 74

2.12 Fluid rotating like a rigid body 75

2.13 Shearing flow between two flat plates 75

2.14 Change of relative positions in an arbitrary flow field 76

2.15 Boundaries of the dam-reservoir system 80

2.16 Dam-reservoir interface 81

2.17 Free surface wave 84

2.18 Rigid dam-infinite reservoir system 87

2.19 Added mass approach 89

3.1 Systems of single degree of freedom 100

3.2 Forces on a single degree of freedom 101

3.3 An example of multi-degree-of-freedom (MDF) sytem with degrees of freedom in y direction 101

3.4 An example of MDF system with two degrees of freedom at each mass 104

3.5 Interface element on the dam-reservoir interaction boundary . 108

5.1 Modes of failure: (a) mode I - Tensile fracture; (b) mode II -planar shear fracture; (c) mode III - tearing fracture 137

5.2 Fracture process zone (fPZ); (a) LEFM; (b) NLFM 139

5.3 Nonlinear fracture mechanics models: (a,b) fictitious crack model,(c,d) crack band model 141

5.4 (a) average stress-strain curve for smeared crack element; (b) characteristic dimension, lc = li,l2; (c) characteristic dimension. lc=VVl" 143

5.5 Nonlinear fracture mechanics in smeared crack propagation model 145

5.6 Closing and reopening of partially formed cracks 147

5.7 Strength-of-material-based failure criterion 152

5.8 Material model in the damage mechanics concept; A)effective areas for isotropic and anisotropic damages; B)characteristic length; C)strain equivalence hypothesis; D)stress-strain curve for equivaalence hypothesis; E)closing-opening criterion; F)initial damage formulation 161

5.9 Stress-strain curve for energy dissipation due to fracture . . . 165

5.10 Constitutive modelling for smeared fracture analysis; a)softening initiation criterion; b)fracture energy conservation; e)local axis system; d)closing and re-opening of cracks 171

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