1.10fD( Ep \ V 1 ED )

1.20D Ep \ V I ED )

0.6ß = 18fD Vs


V 1 EsD J

0.70fD (Ep \ V 1 ED )




0.35fD ( Ep ) V 1 ED )

0.35fD (Ep \ V 1 Ed )

0. 2ß = °AfD Vs

required to solve the response of such an SDOF system are given by Wolf (1985). Useful worked examples are given by Pender (1993).

Because the impedance terms are complex numbers, the calculated displacements also have real and imaginary parts. The maximum (real) response is readily determined by applying the Square Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS) technique.

Calculations on the response of pile groups require the use of dynamic pile group interaction factors. These are frequency dependent complex functions. Interaction factors for various loading directions and responses are given by Gazetas (1991a); Gazetas et al (1991); and Makris and Gazetas (1992).

9.6.3 Combination rules

Since the response of the soil and structure ill be at different natural frequencies, the combination rules given in Clause of EC8 Part 1 can be used to calculate the cumulative effect of kinematic and inertial interaction.

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