Example

A 3 m layer of sand, of saturated unit weight 18 kN/m3, overlies a 4m layer of clay, of saturated unit weight 20 kN/m3. If the ground water level occurs within the sand at 2 m below the ground surface, determine the total and effective vertical stresses acting at the centre of the clay layer. The sand above ground water level may be assumed to be saturated.

For this sort of problem it is usually best to draw a diagram to represent the soil conditions (see Fig. 4.3).

Solution

Sand

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