British Steel Piling Earth Pressure

By factoring the strength parameters, Ka is increased and Kp is decreased leading to modified pressure distributions relative to those obtained using the gross pressure method.

(4) Net total pressure method

This is advocated by British Steel in the British Steel Piling Handbook (1997) where the net horizontal pressure distribution is used (Fig 7.8f)- The pressure distribution is derived by subtracting the active earth and water pressures from the passive earth and water pressures.

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