Main types of earth retaining structures

Various types of earth retaining structures are used in civil engineering, the main ones being:

• mass construction gravity walls;

• reinforced concrete walls;

• diaphragm walls;

• reinforced soil walls

• anchored earth walls.

The last two structures are different from the rest in that the soil itself forms part of these structures. Because of this fundamental difference reinforced soil and anchored earth walls are discussed separately at the end of this chapter.

Earth retaining structures are commonly used to support soils and structures to maintain a difference in elevation of the ground surface and are normally grouped into gravity walls or embedded walls.

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