## Notation Index

The following is a list of the more important symbols used in the text.

A Area, pore pressure coefficient

Ab Area or base of pile

Ar Area ratio

As Area of surface of embedded length of pile shaft

B Width, diameter, pore pressure coefficient

C Cohesive force, constant

Cc Compression index, soil compressibility

Cr Static cone resistance

Cs Constant of compressibility

Cu Uniformity coefficient

Cv Void fluid compressibility

D Diameter, depth factor, embedded length of pile Dc, Dq, D7 Depth factors

Dr Relative density

D10 Effective particle size

E Modulus of elasticity, efficiency of pile group

F Factor of safety

Gs Particle specific gravity

H Thickness, height

I Index, moment of inertia

Ic, Iq, Iy Inclination factors

IL Liquidity index

IP Plasticity index lCT Vertical stress influence factor

K Factor, ratio of 03/o^

Ka Coefficient of active earth pressure

K0 Coefficient of earth pressure at rest

Kp Coefficient of passive earth pressure

Ks Pile constant

L Length

M Moment, slope projection of critical state line, mass, mobilisation factor

Ms Mass of solids

Mw Mass of water

MCV Moisture condition value

N Number, stability number, specific volume for In p' = 0 (one-

dimensional consolidation), uncorrected blow count in SPT

N' Corrected blow count in SPT Nc, Nq, N7 Bearing capacity coefficients

P Force

Pa Thrust due to active earth pressure

Pp Thrust due to passive earth pressure

Pw Thrust due to water or seepage forces

Q Total quantity of flow in time t

Qb Ultimate soil strength at pile base

Qs Ultimate soil around pile shaft

Qu Ultimate load carrying capacity of pile

R Radius, reaction, residual factor

R0 Overconsolidation ratio (one-dimensional)

Rp Overconsolidation ratio (isotropic)

S Vane shear strength

Sc, Sq, Sy Shape factors

Sr Degree of saturation

St Sensitivity

SL Shrinkage limit

T Time factor, tangential force, surface tension, torque

U Average degree of consolidation

Uz Degree of consolidation at a point at depth z

V Volume

Va Volume of air

Vs Volume of solids

Vv Volume of voids

Vw Volume of water

W Weight

Ws Weight of solids

### Ww Weight of water

Z Section modulus a Area, intercept of soil calibration line with w axis b Width, slope of soil calibration line c Unit cohesion with respect to total stresses c' Unit cohesion with respect to effective stresses

Ci, Undisturbed soil shear strength at pile base cr Residual value of cohesion cu Undrained unit cohesion cu Average undrained shear strength of soil cv Coefficient of consolidation

Cw Unit cohesion between wall and soil d Pile penetration, pile diameter e Void ratio, eccentricity f Ultimate skin friction for piles g Gravitational acceleration h Hydrostatic head, height hc Capillary rise, tension crack depth i Hydraulic gradient k Coefficient of permeability

1 Length m Stability coefficient mv Coefficient of volume compressibility n Porosity, stability coefficient p Pressure, mean pressure pa Active earth pressure pc Preconsolidation pressure (one-dimensional)

Pe Equivalent consolidation pressure (isotropic)

p0 Earth pressure at rest p'm Preconsolidation pressure (isotropic)

Po Effective overburden pressure pp Passive earth pressure q Unit quantity of flow, deviator stress qa Safe bearing capacity qu Ultimate bearing capacity qunet Net ultimate bearing capacity r Radius, radial distance, finite difference constant s Suction value of soil, stress parameter sw Corrected drawdown in pumping well t Time, stress parameter u, uw Pore water pressure ua Pore air pressure, pore pressure due to 03 in a saturated soil ud Pore pressure due to (<ri — 03) in a saturated soil u. Initial pore water pressure v Velocity, specific volume wL Liquid limit wP Plastic limit x Horizontal distance y Vertical, or horizontal, distance z Vertical distance, depth z0 Depth of tension crack a ß

Angle, adhesion factor for piles Angle

Chapter 1

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