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Height of clay left above gravel after excavation = 8 — 2 = 6 m Upward pressure from water on base of clay = 10 x 10 = 100 kN/m2 Downward pressure of clay — 6 x 19.0 = 114 kN/m2

Upward forces 110 Downward pressure after construction = 114-

Factor of safety = 2.14

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