## Cgj

where Rhk represents the characteristic horizontal resistance over the base of the footing (i.e. the interface between the footing and the ground); P Gk represents the characteristic thrust due to passive earth pressures which helps to restrain the footing; and A' is the footing's effective area (defined in Section 10.4.2).

The design shear resistance TRd is then either (in Design Approaches 1 and 3): 1

A \ YRh where YRh and YG,fav are partial factors on horizontal resistance and favourable permanent actions, respectively.

In the first expression, partial factors are applied to actions and material properties, while in the second expression they are applied to effects of actions and resistance (see Chapter 6).

In both these equations, the passive earth pressure PGk has been treated as a favourable action (and hence multiplied by YGfav = 1.0). If it had been treated as a resistance, the equations would have been written: J_

and:

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