Contents

About the authors xi

Acknowledgements xiii

Prologue 1

Construction Products Directive 89/106/CE 1

Scope of the book 2

Key features of the book 3

Outline of the book 3

Further information 6

Notes and references 6

1 The Structural Eurocodes 7

1.1 The Structural Eurocode programme 7

1.2 The wider landscape 11

1.3 Standards organizations 14

1.4 Summary of key points 21

1.5 Notes and references 21

2 Basis of structural design 25

2.1 Contents of the Eurocode 25

2.2 Requirements 26

2.3 Assumptions 29

2.4 Principles and Application Rules 29

2.5 Principles of limit state design 29

2.6 Design situations 30

2.7 Ultimate limit states 32

2.8 Serviceability limit states 35

2.9 Actions, combinations, and effects 36

2.10 Material properties and resistance 44

2.11 Geometrical data 49

2.12 Structural analysis and design by testing 50

2.13 Verification by the partial factor method 50

2.14 Summary of key points 54

2.15 Worked examples 55

2.16 Notes and references 68

3 General rules for geotechnical design 71

3.1 Scope of Eurocode 7 Part 1 71

3.2 Design requirements 73

3.3 Limit states 77

3.4 Actions and design situations 78

3.5 Design and construction considerations 85

3.6 Geotechnical design 86

3.7 Supervision, monitoring, and maintenance 89

3.8 The Geotechnical Design Report 92

3.9 Summary of key points 93

3.10 Notes and references 94

4 Ground investigation and testing 95

4.1 Standards for geotechnical investigation and testing 95

4.2 Planning ground investigations 97

4.3 Identification and classification of soil 101

4.4 Identification and classification of rock 104

4.5 Soil and rock sampling 106

4.6 Groundwater measurements 109

4.7 Field tests in soil and rock 110

4.8 Laboratory tests in soil and rock 114

4.9 Testing of geotechnical structures 117

4.10 Summary of key points 117

4.11 Worked examples 117

4.12 Notes and references 125

5 Ground characterization 129

5.1 From test results to design 129

5.2 Deriving geotechnical parameters 129

5.3 Obtaining the characteristic value 135

5.4 Case studies selecting characteristic values 143

5.5 Statistical methods for ground characterization 151

5.6 Summary of key points 158

5.7 Worked examples 159

5.8 Notes and references 170

6 Verification of strength 173

6.1 Basis of design 173

6.2 Introducing reliability into the design 177

6.3 Design approaches 184

6.4 Alternative ways of dealing with design uncertainty 197

6.5 Summary of key points 199

6.6 Notes and references 200

7 Verification of stability 201

7.1 Basis of design 201

7.2 Introducing reliability into the design 202

7.3 Loss of static equilibrium 206

7.4 Uplift 210

7.5 Hydraulic failure 215

7.6 Summary of key points 220

7.7 Worked examples 220

7.8 Notes and references 251

8 Verification of serviceability 253

8.1 Basis of design 253

8.2 Introducing reliability into the design 256

8.3 Simplified verification of serviceability 258

8.4 Methods to determine settlement 260

8.5 Summary of key points 261

8.6 Worked examples 261

8.7 Notes and references 261

9 Design of slopes and embankments 263

9.1 Ground investigation for slopes and embankments 263

9.2 Design situations and limit states 264

9.3 Basis of design 265

9.4 Stability of an infinitely long slope 265

9.5 Stability of a finite slope (based on method of slices) 272

9.6 Supervision, monitoring, and maintenance 278

9.7 Summary of key points 278

9.8 Worked examples 279

9.9 Notes and references 304

10 Design of footings 305

10.1 Ground investigation for footings 305

10.2 Design situations and limit states 306

10.3 Basis of design 307

10.4 Footings subject to vertical actions 308

10.5 Footings subject to horizontal actions 315

10.6 Design for serviceability 321

10.7 Structural design 323

10.8 Supervision, monitoring, and maintenance 323

10.9 Summary of key points 324

10.10 Worked examples 324

10.11 Notes and references 351

11 Design of gravity walls 353

11.1 Ground investigation for gravity walls 353

11.2 Design situations and limit states 354

11.3 Basis of design 355

11.4 Reinforced concrete walls 359

11.5 Mass gravity walls 365

11.6 Reinforced fill structures 368

11.7 Design for serviceability 368

11.8 Structural design 369

11.9 Supervision, monitoring, and maintenance 369

11.10 Summary of key points 370

11.11 Worked examples 370

11.12 Notes and references 397

12 Design of embedded walls 399

12.1 Ground investigation for embedded walls 399

12.2 Design situations and limit states 401

12.3 Basis of design 402

12.4 Limiting equilibrium methods 407

12.5 Soil-structure interaction analysis 418

12.6 Design for serviceability 422

12.7 Structural design 424

12.8 Supervision, monitoring, and maintenance 424

12.9 Summary of key points 424

12.10 Worked examples 425

12.11 Notes and references 440

13 Design of piles 443

13.1 Ground investigation for piles 443

13.2 Design situations and limit states 444

13.3 Basis of design 445

13.4 Piles subject to compression 449

13.5 Piles subject to tension 452

13.6 Piles subject to transverse actions 454

13.7 Introducing reliability into the design of piles 454

13.8 Design by calculation 464

13.9 Design by testing 465

13.10 Traditional design 468

13.11 Changes made in the UK National Annex 470

13.12 Supervision, monitoring, and maintenance 474

13.13 Summary of key points 475

13.14 Worked examples 475

13.15 Notes and references 507

14 Design of anchorages 509

14.1 Ground investigation for anchorages 510

14.2 Design situations and limit states 510

14.3 Basis of design 510

14.4 Anchorage tests 513

14.5 Pull-out resistance from tests 517

14.6 Pull-out resistance by calculation 520

14.7 Summary of key points 520

14.8 Worked example 520

14.9 Notes and references 526

15 Execution of geotechnical works 529

15.1 The work of CEN TC 288 529

15.2 Piles 530

15.3 Walls and steep slopes 537

15.4 Ground improvement 545

15.5 Future developments 554

15.6 Summary of key points 554

15.7 Notes and references 555

16 Geotechnical reports 557

16.1 Introduction 557

16.2 Geotechnical investigation and testing reports 558

16.3 Ground Investigation Report 561

16.4 Geotechnical Design Report 563

16.5 Comparison with existing practice 565

16.6 Who writes what? 568

16.7 Summary of key points 570

16.8 Notes and references 571

Epilogue 573

Reaction to the Eurocodes 573

Dissemination 575

Looking ahead 576

Conclusion 576

Appendix 1: Slope stability design charts 577

Appendix 2: Earth pressure coefficients 581

Appendix 3: Notes on the worked example 589

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