Design of embedded walls

The design of embedded retaining walls is covered by Section 9 of Eurocode 7 Part 1, 'Retaining structures', whose contents are as follows: §9.1 General (6 paragraphs) §9.2 Limit states (4)

§9.3 Actions, geometrical data and design situations (26)

§9.4 Design and construction considerations (10)

§9.5 Determination of earth pressures (23)

§9.7 Ultimate limit state design (26)

§9.8 Serviceability limit state design (14)

An embedded wall is a relatively thin structure whose bending capacity plays a significant role in the support of the retained material. Such walls are usually made of steel, reinforced concrete, or timber and supported by anchorages, struts, and passive earth pressure. [en 1997-1 §]

Structures composed of elements from both gravity and embedded walls -for example, double sheet pile wall cofferdams - are called 'composite walls' in Eurocode 7. Composite walls should be designed according to the rules discussed in Chapter 11 and in this chapter. [en 1997-1 §]

Section 9 of EN 1997-1 applies to structures which retain ground (soil, rock, or backfill) and water, where 'retained' means 'kept at a slope steeper than it would eventually adopt if no structure were present'. [en 1997-1 §9.1.1(1)P]

The design of silos is covered by ENs 1991-41 and 1993-4-12, not EN 1997-1.

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