Design situations and limit states

Figure 10.2 shows some of the ultimate limit states that spread foundations must be designed to withstand. From left to right, these include: (top) loss of stability owing to an applied moment, bearing failure, and sliding owing to an applied horizontal action; and (bottom) structural failure of the foundation base and combined failure in the structure and the ground.

Loss of stability

Bearing failure


Structural failure

Combined failure in ground & structure

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