Design situations and limit states

Situations where the performance of anchorages is crucial to the design are illustrated in Figure 14.1. From left to right, these include: (top) anchorage support to a retaining wall and for a potential slip in soil; (middle) anchorages helping to resist uplift and supporting a wind turbine; and (bottom) anchoring a potential wedge failure in rock.

Limit states for anchorages typically involve structural failure of the anchor tendon or anchor head; corrosion or distortion of the anchor head; failure at the interface of the grout with the tendon or the surrounding ground; instability of the ground containing the anchor and associated structures; or loss of anchorage force owing to creep, relaxation, or excessive displacement of the anchor head. [en 1997-1 ยง8.3(1)P]

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