Design situations and limit states

Examples of limit states that can affect embedded retaining walls are shown in Figure 12.2. From left to right, these include: (top) wall head kicking into excavation, owing to rotation about a fixed point in the ground, and wall toe kicking into excavation, owing to rotation about a single prop; (middle) failure of the wall stem in bending and pull-out of a supporting anchor; and (bottom) basal heave and prop failure.

Eurocode Examples
Figure 12.2. Examples of limit states for embedded retaining walls

ยง9 of Eurocode 7 Part 1 includes a series of illustrations showing limit modes for embedded walls, covering overall stability; rotational, vertical, and structural failure; and failure by pullout of anchors.

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