## E EKllG sin

The values of the partial factor grouping in this equation are given on page 269 for each Design Approach defined in Eurocode 7.

### 9.5.3 Drained analysis based on effective stresses

Slopes made of coarse soils and long-term slopes made of fine soils must be analysed in terms of effective stresses. The normal stresses acting on the slip plane and on the sides of the slices make the governing equations indeterminate and closed-form solutions impossible to obtain.

Techniques such as Bishop's Routine Method for circular slips (a.k.a. the 'Simplified Method')6 make simplifying assumptions about interslice forces that allow iteration to produce a global factor of safety F for the slope. An advantage of Bishop's Routine Method is that it fully satisfies moment and horizontal force equilibrium (but not vertical equilibrium, although this has been shown to be unimportant7). Alternative solutions have been derived for non-circular slip surfaces.8

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